Diabetes Flashcards Preview

Year 2 Clinical Pathology > Diabetes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (72):
1

What is diabetes?

A syndrome of chronic hyperglycaemia due to various causes

2

What is diabetes?

A syndrome of chronic hyperglycaemia due to various causes

3

What 2 other conditions do patients with diabetes often have?

Hyperlipidaemia and hypertension

4

What is the normal level of blood glucose within the blood?

5mmol/L

5

High blood sugar promotes release of what hormone from the pancreas?

Insulin

6

Low blood sugar promotes the release of what hormone from the pancreas?

Glucagon

7

Which organ is integral to maintaining blood sugar and is under the influence of both glucagon and insulin?

The liver

8

What are the 2 main actions of insulin?

1) Stimulates glucose uptake from the blood into all tissues
2) Promotes the conversion of glucose to glycogen in the liver

9

What is the main action of glucagon?

Stimulates breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver to be released into the blood stream

10

Which blood sugar levels define hypoglycaemia?

11

What blood sugar level defines hyperglycaemia?

>11mmol/L

12

What is a syndrome?

A collection of symptoms and signs that may be due to more than one cause

13

What are the 4 main symptoms of diabetes?

1) Thirst
2) Polyuria
3) Weight loss
4) Tiredness

14

What are the 4 main signs of diabetes?

1) Dry mouth
2) Weight loss
3) Glycosuria
4) Hyperglycaemia

15

What percentage of the Leeds population suffers from diabetes?

40%

16

In which 2 groups is diabetes most prevalent?

1) Asians
2) Afro-Caribbeans

17

What would be a normal and a diabetic fasting blood glucose?

Normal = 7mmol/L

18

What would be a normal and a diabetic fasting blood glucose?

Normal = 7mmol/L

19

What 2 other conditions do patients with diabetes often have?

Hyperlipidaemia and hypertension

20

What is the normal level of blood glucose within the blood?

5mmol/L

21

High blood sugar promotes release of what hormone from the pancreas?

Insulin

22

Low blood sugar promotes the release of what hormone from the pancreas?

Glucagon

23

Which organ is integral to maintaining blood sugar and is under the influence of both glucagon and insulin?

The liver

24

What are the 2 main actions of insulin?

1) Stimulates glucose uptake from the blood into all tissues
2) Promotes the conversion of glucose to glycogen in the liver

25

What is the main action of glucagon?

Stimulates breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver to be released into the blood stream

26

Which blood sugar levels define hypoglycaemia?

27

What blood sugar level defines hyperglycaemia?

>11mmol/L

28

What is a syndrome?

A collection of symptoms and signs that may be due to more than one cause

29

What are the 4 main symptoms of diabetes?

1) Thirst
2) Polyuria
3) Weight loss
4) Tiredness

30

What are the 4 main signs of diabetes?

1) Dry mouth
2) Weight loss
3) Glycosuria
4) Hyperglycaemia

31

What percentage of the Leeds population suffers from diabetes?

40%

32

In which 2 groups is diabetes most prevalent?

1) Asians
2) Afro-Caribbeans

33

A diagnosis of diabetes can be made on the grounds of 1 of what 4 findings?

1) Typical symptoms and a high RANDOM blood glucose
2) Fasting blood glucose >7mmol/L
3) 75g Oral glucose tolerance test
4) HbA1c; 48mmol/mol (6.5%)

34

What would be a normal and a diabetic fasting blood glucose?

Normal = 7mmol/L

35

What is an oral glucose tolerance test, what would be a diabetic result?

Patient is fasting then given a 75g oral glucose load
2 hour post glucose load the blood sugar level is measured
Diabetic = >11mmol/L

36

What is the other method of carrying out a glucose tolerance test?

IV

37

What are the fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance test levels seen as borderline diabetic?

Fasting blood glucose: 6-7mmol/L
2 hour glucose levels: 7.8-11 mmol/L

38

What 4 investigations in addition to blood glucose are important in diabetes?

1) HbA1c
2) Renal function
3) Liver function
4) Lipids
5) Thyroid function

39

What is ketosis prone type 2 diabetes?

A variant of type 2 DM, ketosis occurs when patient is physically stressed with intercurrent illness, temporarily requires insulin but its not insulin dependent

40

What is the use of HbA1c?

Can be used to assess the degree of glycaemic control as it reflects glucose levels over the last 120 days

41

A patient on diabetic therapy would have a high HbA1c for one of what 2 reasons?

1) The treatment isn't working
2) The patient is not adhering to their treatment

42

Give 2 drug therapies which can induce diabetes?

1) Steroids
2) Anti psychotics

43

What is type 1 diabetes?

Insulin dependent. Autoimmune destruction of the insulin producing islet beta cells, cant produce insulin.

44

Is type 1 diabetes commonly diagnosed in the young or old?

Young

45

What 3 auto Ab tests would you do is suspected type 1 DM?

1) ICA
2) IA2
3) GAD

46

If a patient had type 1 diabetes, what kinds of conditions would you expect to see in that patients PMH or FH?

Other endocrine disorders

47

What is insulitis?

Lymphocytic infiltration of the islets of Langerhans - occurs in Type 1 DM

48

What is LADA?

Late autoimmune diabetes in adults

49

LADA tends to affect which group of patients?

Older females

50

How does LADA present?

Presents as type 2 diabetes
Patients then have deterioration in control, becoming increasingly reliant on therapy
Autoantibodies then found
Patient reclassified as LADA

51

What 4 Ab tests are carried out in LADA?

1) GAD
2) ICA
3) tTG
4) TPO

52

What 6 conditions relating to LADA are often found in the families of PMH of patients with LADA?

1) Type 1 DM
2) Thyroid
3) PA (propionic acidaemia)
4) Addison's
5) Coeliac
6) Vitiligo

53

What is type 2 diabetes?

Insulin deficient or resistant diabetes, not absolutely insulin dependent and often associated with obesity

54

What 2 conditions are commonly found in conjunction with type 2 DM?

1) Hypertension
2) Hyperlipidaemia

55

Is type 2 diabetes genetic?

Not completely genetic but known to have some genetic involvement as shows strong family history

56

Ketosis prone type 2 DM often occurs in which group?

Often obese, ethnic minority

57

Diabetes can be secondary to disorders of what organ?

Pancreatic disorders

58

What 5 pancreatic disorders can lead to diabetes?

1) Chronic or acute pancreatitis
2) Calcific, tropical pancreatitis
3) Pancreatectomy
4) Pancreatic cancer
5) Cystic fibrosis
6) Haemochromatosis

59

What is haemochromatosis?

Inherited disorder in which you absorb too much iron and suffer with iron overload - iron gets deposited in many tissues including the pancreas

60

What 4 drugs can cause drug induced diabetes?

1) Diuretics
2) Steroids
3) Antipsychotics eg. Olanzapine
4) Psychiatric drugs: weight gain

61

What 3 endocrine disorders can cause diabetes?

1) Acromegaly - high GH
2) Cushing's syndrome - high cortisol
3) Phaeochromocytoma

62

What are the 5 ethnic variants of diabetes?

1) J type diabetes: Jamaican diabetes, Afro-caribbeans
2) Flatbush diabetes: US Afro-Americans
3) MRDM: malnutrition-related diabetes, tropic diabetes
4) Chronic calcific pancreatitis: secondary diabetes
5) Z type diabetes

63

What is the other name for J type Jamaican diabetes?

Flatbush diabetes

64

What are the 4 characteristics of J type diabetes?

1) Ketosis prone
2) Not particularly obese
3) On and off insulin therapy
4) Variable insulin requirements

65

What 2 genetic syndromes cause diabetes?

1) Friedreich's ataxia
2) Dystrophia myotonica

66

What is gestational diabetes?

Diabetes which appears during pregnancy and resolves after pregnancy

67

Does gestational diabetes increase the risk of developing diabetes in the future?

- Have a risk of diabetes in a later pregnancy
- At risk of diabetes in the future

68

What is MODY?

Maturity onset diabetes in the young - a rare genetic form of diabetes

69

Is MODY inherited?

Yes - autosomal dominant pattern

70

Is insulin required in MODY?

Not initially

71

What is the age of onset of MODY?

Before 25

72

MODY can be caused by a mutations in which 3 genes?

1) Glucokinase
2) HNF 1A
3) HNF 4A

Decks in Year 2 Clinical Pathology Class (64):