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Year 2 Clinical Pathology > Immunisation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immunisation Deck (20):

Vaccination is considered the single most effective medical intervention so far second only to what?

Access to clean water


There are 3 strategies of vaccination what are they?

1) Selective protection of the vulnerable
2) Elimination - herd immunity
3) Eradication


What are the 5 possible programmatic aims of vaccination programmes?

1) Prevent deaths
2) Prevent infection
3) Prevent transmission (secondary cases)
4) Prevent clinical cases
5) Prevent cases in certain age groups


What is the single largest aim of vaccination programmes?

To reduce mortality and morbidity from vaccine preventable infections


What is meant by passive immunity?

Either vertical transmission of auto-Ab from mother to foetus & breastfeeding
Or injection of human immunoglobulin


What is meant by active immunity?

Immunity arising from natural infection, or injection of inactivated or attenuated live organisms


What is meant by immunologic memory?

The persistence of protection for many years after natural infection or vaccination


Name the 4 different types of antibody?

IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE


What is the difference between primary immune response and secondary immune response and which Ab are involved?

Primary immune response develops in the weeks following first exposure to an Ag - mainly IgM antibody
Secondary immune response occurs on re-exposure and is faster and more powerful
Mainly IgG Ab


How basically do antibodies produce immunity?

1) Ab produced from B lymphocytes
2) Ag binds non-specifically to variable region of Ab (Ig) molecule, this triggers clonal expansion
3) 1st wave of IgM production, followed by IgG production
4) IgG bonds tightly to Ag and through simultaneous complement binding facilitates the destruction of the Ag bearing micro-organism
5) When infection resolved levels of IgG decline
6) However one set of the IgG producing B lymphocytes persists with the ability to recognise that specific Ag = immunological memory


Give 4 different vaccination programmes which use live organisms?

1) MMR
2) BCG
3) Yellow fever
4) Varicella


Give 3 different vaccination programmes which use inactivated organisms?

1) Pertussis
2) Typhoid
3) IPV


Give 2 different vaccination programmes which use components of organisms?

1) Influenza
2) Pneumococcal


Give 2 different vaccination programmes which use inactivated toxins?

1) Diphtheria
2) Tetanus


In what disease is human immunoglobulin from pooled plasma sometimes injected as prophylaxis?

Measles - HNIG


In what diseases can specific human immunoglobulin be injected as prophylaxis? 5

1) Tetanus
2) Botulism
3) Hep B
4) Rabies
5) Varicella


What are the 3 advantages of live vaccines?

1) Single dose often sufficient to induce long-lasting immunity
2) Strong immune response evoked
3) Local and systemic immunity produced


What are the 5 disadvantages of live vaccines?

1) Potential to revert to virulence
2) Contraindicated in immune-suppressed patients
3) Interference by viruses or vaccines and passive antibody
4) Poor stability
5) Potential for contamination


What are the 3 advantages of inactivated/killed vaccines?

1) Stable
2) Constituents clearly defined
3) Unable to cause the infection


What are the 4 disadvantages of inactivated/killed vaccines?

1) Need several doses
2) Local reactions common
3) Adjuvant needed: keeps vaccine at injection site, activates APCs
4) Shorter lasting immunity

Decks in Year 2 Clinical Pathology Class (64):