Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (41):
Types of rapid acting insulin
Types of short acting insulin
Types of long acting insulin
What is the onset time of rapid acting?
What is the onset time of short acting?
What is the onset time of NPH?
What is the onset time of Glargine (Lantus) and Detemir (Levemir)?
What is the peak time of rapid acting?
What is the peak time of short acting?
What is the peak time of NPH?
What is the peak time of Glargine (Lantus) and Detemir (Levemir)?
What is the effective duration time of rapid acting?
Less than 5 hrs
What is the effective duration time of short acting?
What is the effective duration time of NPH?
What is the effective duration time of long acting insulin?
S/S of Type 1 diabetes:
Unexplained weight loss
S/S of Type 2 diabetes:
Prolonged wound healing
What is the targeted HbA1C level for someone with diabetes?
What are the two type of complications?
What is the an acute complication for Type 1?
What is the acute complication of Type 2?
(Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome)
S/S of HHS
Dry mouth, dry tongue
Increased urination (at the beginning of the syndrome)
What is the treatment for HHS?
Monitoring and replacement of electrolytes
Correction of hyperglycemia with insulin (addition of glucose to IVF when blood sugar reaches 250)
*Potassium should be corrected (if needed) before insulin
What will hyperglycemia, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia cause when presented together?
Nervous system dysfunction
What is macrovasuclar disease?
Disease of large and medium sized blood vessels
What is microvascular disease?
Specific to diabetes
Result from thickening of vessel membranes in capillaries and arterioles
Microvascular disease is in response to what?
What are the areas most noticeably affected by microvascular disease?
Eyes (retinopathy) (blindness)
Kidneys (nephropathy) (kidney failure)
What is critical for preventing or delaying small vessel disease?
Tight glucose control
ACE inhibitors (used even when not hypertensive) (prevent nephropathy)
Angiotensin II receptor antagonists
Yearly screening (eye and urine)
What are characteristics of diabetic neuropathy?
Loss of sensation
What can diabetic neuropathy affect in the autonomic nervous system?
Delayed gastric emptying
What are key educational considerations?
Control your glucose, BP, and cholesterol
Early treatment of foot, eye, kidney, and heart problems
Education about diabetes, nutrition, and exercise
What is a common long term complication of diabetes affecting 50%?
Peripheral neuropathy affects what?
Functioning sensory, motor, and autonomic nerve fibers
What is the most common form of peripheral nerve dysfunction and the form most closely associated with ulcer aetiology ?
What are some chronic complications of diabetes?
What is a main difference between DKA and HHS?
Speed of symptom development
DKA is faster than HHS
In people with Type 1 diabetes, DKA can be precipitated by what?
Infection such as UTI or respiratory
Insulin errors and omissions
Diarrhea and vomiting (Illness)
DKA is a result of what?
And increases the production of what counter-regulatory hormones?
Relative or absolute lack of insulin
What are some examples of food that contains 15g?
1 slice of bread
Bran cereals 1/2 cup
Cookie, fat free, 2 small
Cupcake no frosting
Ice cream (light) 1/2 cup
Orange juice 1/2 cup
Rice 1/3 cup
Saltine crackers (6)
Sugar/honey 1 Tsp
Yogurt, fat free, with sugar substitute 1 cup