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Med/Surg 1 Exam 2 > Diabetes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (41):
1

Types of rapid acting insulin

Aspart (Novolog)
Glulisine (Apidra)
Lispro (Humalog)

2

Types of short acting insulin

Regular

3

Types of long acting insulin


Glargine (Lantus)
Detemir (Levemir)

4

What is the onset time of rapid acting?

5-15 mins

5

What is the onset time of short acting?

30-60 mins

6

What is the onset time of NPH?

2-4 hrs

7

What is the onset time of Glargine (Lantus) and Detemir (Levemir)?

2-4 hrs

8

What is the peak time of rapid acting?

30-90 mins

9

What is the peak time of short acting?

2-3 hrs

10

What is the peak time of NPH?

8hrs

11

What is the peak time of Glargine (Lantus) and Detemir (Levemir)?

No peak

12

What is the effective duration time of rapid acting?

Less than 5 hrs

13

What is the effective duration time of short acting?

6-8 hrs

14

What is the effective duration time of NPH?

10-16 hrs

15

What is the effective duration time of long acting insulin?

20-24 hrs

16

S/S of Type 1 diabetes:

Polyuria
Polyphagia (appetite)
Polydipsia (thirst)
Unexplained weight loss
Dehydration
Fatigue

17

S/S of Type 2 diabetes:

Fatigue
Recurrent infections
Prolonged wound healing
Visual changes

18

What is the targeted HbA1C level for someone with diabetes?

6.5-7%

19

What are the two type of complications?

Acute
Chronic

20

What is the an acute complication for Type 1?

DKA

21

What is the acute complication of Type 2?

HHS
(Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome)

22

S/S of HHS

Coma
Confusion
Convulsions
Dry mouth, dry tongue
Fever
Increased thirst
Increased urination (at the beginning of the syndrome)
Lethargy
Nausea
Weakness
Weight loss
Abdominal distension

23

What is the treatment for HHS?

Aggressive rehydration
Monitoring and replacement of electrolytes
Correction of hyperglycemia with insulin (addition of glucose to IVF when blood sugar reaches 250)

*Potassium should be corrected (if needed) before insulin

24

What will hyperglycemia, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia cause when presented together?

Impaired sensation/perception
Nervous system dysfunction
Impaired perfusion
Impaired oxygenation

25

What is macrovasuclar disease?

Disease of large and medium sized blood vessels

26

What is microvascular disease?

Specific to diabetes
Result from thickening of vessel membranes in capillaries and arterioles

27

Microvascular disease is in response to what?

Chronic hyperglycemia

28

What are the areas most noticeably affected by microvascular disease?

Eyes (retinopathy) (blindness)
Kidneys (nephropathy) (kidney failure)
Skin (dermopathy)

29

What is critical for preventing or delaying small vessel disease?

Tight glucose control
BP management
ACE inhibitors (used even when not hypertensive) (prevent nephropathy)
Angiotensin II receptor antagonists
Yearly screening (eye and urine)

30

What are characteristics of diabetic neuropathy?

Loss of sensation
Abnormal sensations
Pain
Paresthesias

31

What can diabetic neuropathy affect in the autonomic nervous system?

Gastroparesis
Delayed gastric emptying
Cardiovascular abnormalities
Sexual function
Neurogenic bladder

32

What are key educational considerations?

Control your glucose, BP, and cholesterol
Early treatment of foot, eye, kidney, and heart problems
No
Smoking
Education about diabetes, nutrition, and exercise

33

What is a common long term complication of diabetes affecting 50%?

Peripheral neuropathy

34

Peripheral neuropathy affects what?

Functioning sensory, motor, and autonomic nerve fibers

35

What is the most common form of peripheral nerve dysfunction and the form most closely associated with ulcer aetiology ?

Sensory neuropathy

36

What are some chronic complications of diabetes?

Retinopathy
Nephropathy
Cardiac failure
Neuropathy
Amputation

37

What is a main difference between DKA and HHS?

Speed of symptom development
DKA is faster than HHS

38

In people with Type 1 diabetes, DKA can be precipitated by what?

Infection such as UTI or respiratory
Insulin errors and omissions
MI
Diarrhea and vomiting (Illness)

39

DKA is a result of what?
And increases the production of what counter-regulatory hormones?

Relative or absolute lack of insulin

Glucagon
Catecholamines
Cortisol
Growth hormone

40

What are some examples of food that contains 15g?

Apple
1 slice of bread
Bran cereals 1/2 cup
Cookie, fat free, 2 small
Cupcake no frosting
Ice cream (light) 1/2 cup
Milk 8oz
Orange juice 1/2 cup
Potato
Rice 1/3 cup
Saltine crackers (6)
Sugar/honey 1 Tsp
Yogurt, fat free, with sugar substitute 1 cup

41

Type of intermediate acting insulin ?

NPH