Flashcards in Introduction To Cancer Deck (68):
What is mitosis?
When a cell splits into 2 genetically identical daughter cells
What is meiosis?
When a cell splits but keeps only half the genetic chromosomes (23 vs normal 46)
In what type of cells does meiosis only occur?
Sex cells of testes and ovaries
What is differentiation?
Normal process where cells change in order to specialize for certain body functions
What are some alterations to cells?
What is hyperplasia?
An increase in number or density of normal cells
What is metaplasia?
Change in the normal pattern of cell differentiation (cells ain't where they are supposed to be)
What is dysplasia?
Cells that differentiate in abnormal ways
What is anaplasia?
Immature or undifferentiated cell reproduction
What is cancer marked by?
Uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells
Another name for tumor:
What is a neoplasm
Mass of new tissue which grows independently from surrounding tissues and has no function
Characteristics of benign tumors:
- Localized growths
- Solid, well defined borders
- Grow slowly and remain stable in size
- Usually easily removed and don't recur
Why can benign still cause problems?
Crowding and obstructions
What is inhibition?
Stop growing when they reach the border of other tissues
Characteristics of malignant tumors
- Grows aggressively
- Irregular in shape, no defined borders
- Cuts through other tissues causing injury
- Varying degrees of differentiation from parent cells
Characteristics of malignant cells
- Unregulated mitosis
- Loss of specialization and differentiation
- No contact inhibition
- Altered cell structure
- Promote own survival
Progressive mutations can lead to?
Greater deviation and sometimes immortality
What is transplantability?
Ability to break away and grow elsewhere
How does malignant cells promote their own survival?
Create vascular and support structures for own use
What is the key step that separates benign from malignant tumors?
What is angiogenesis?
Formation of new blood vessels from old
How is angiogenesis used in normal body function?
Integral in would healing formation of granulation tissue
What is metastasis?
Process where cancer cells spread from their primary site to distant organs and tissues
What happens as malignant cells spread?
They access vascular and lymphatic systems (even possible to create their own) allowing them to spread to distant parts of the body
What two primary factors are central to all origins of cancer?
What are carcinogens?
Substances which can cause genetic mutation in cells through exposure
What is immune impairment?
Lessens bodies ability to fight and control abnormal cell growth
Carcinogens can either be?
External: chemicals, substances, viruses
Internal: inherited mutations, hormones
What are some general risk factors?
Tobacco, recreational drug, and alcohol use
Where does mutation occur?
How do these mutations occur?
Can be inherited via genetic link from parents or acquired during life due to exposure to carcinogens
Initiation of cancer cells?
CA cells arise from "normal" cells due to change in the cells' genetic structure
Exposure to promoting agents causes mutations to do what?
Express themselves and/or mutated cells to proliferate
Some carcinogens function as both what?
Initiators and promoters
What happens during progression?
- Cancer cells increase in proliferation rate
- Formation of tumor
- Spread of cancer cells outside of tumor
Initiators cause cellular mutation
Carcinogen exposure causes expression of mutant genetics
Increasing malignant behavior and spread
What are some ways of prevention?
- Avoiding exposure to carcinogens/reducing risk factors
- Follow workplace safety guidelines
- General lifestyle changes
What are some general lifestyle changes?
Quit smoking/limit drinking
Wear sunscreen/limit sun exposure
What are some ways of diagnosing cancer?
Lab tests: blood, urine
Examples of imaging
What is cytology?
Tissue sample taken from fluid aspiration, biopsy
Which examination of cells can reveal differences in tumor cell from normal or parent cells?
What are tumor markers?
Biochemical indicators of tumors which can be found in ALL body tissue when tumors are present
Examples of visualization
What does diagnosis grading mean?
Level of differentiation from parent cell
TNM stands for
Tumor- size of tumor
Node- lymph node involvement
Metastasis- spread to other areas
What are some types of medical treatments?
What does nursing care post surgery include?
General post op care
Monitor for bleeding
Anti-neoplastic meds inhibit?
DNA and/or RNA production or replication f
Nursing care for Chemo: Hormones
Block hormones used for cancer cell growth
Nursing care for Chemo: Antianemics
Help support RBC
General Chemo side effects include?
What is part of nursing care for chemo patients?
- Infection control: neutropenic precautions
- Promote fluid intake and nutriton
- Monitor kidney, liver function (especially with anti-neoplastic drugs)
- Activity tolerance
- Educate on side effects/changes: urine color change
- Psychosocial, sexual, spiritual health
What are some clinical manifestations of cancer?
Change in normal body functions (bowel, bladder pattern, GI upset)
Nursing care for external beam
Educate patient on cleaning (mild soap, pat dry, don't soak)
Nursing care for Brachytherapy
Minimize time in room/maintain distance
Don't dislodge pellet
Keep lead container and tongs in room
Activity, skin tears, hazards of immobility
What is brachytherapy?
Placing radioactive material directly inside or next to tumor
What is an external beam?
High energy x-ray machine to direct radiation to tumor
What is the machine used for external beam therapy?
What is cachexia?
Wasting/rapid weight loss caused by metabolic demands of cancer
What is paraneoplastic syndrome?
Caused by production of biological chemicals at sites OTHER THAN where cancer is