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Flashcards in Introduction To Cancer Deck (68):
1

What is mitosis?

When a cell splits into 2 genetically identical daughter cells

2

What is meiosis?

When a cell splits but keeps only half the genetic chromosomes (23 vs normal 46)

3

In what type of cells does meiosis only occur?

Sex cells of testes and ovaries

4

What is differentiation?

Normal process where cells change in order to specialize for certain body functions

5

What are some alterations to cells?

Hyperplasia
Metaplasia
Dysplasia
Anaplasia

6

What is hyperplasia?

An increase in number or density of normal cells

7

What is metaplasia?

Change in the normal pattern of cell differentiation (cells ain't where they are supposed to be)

8

What is dysplasia?

Cells that differentiate in abnormal ways

9

What is anaplasia?

Immature or undifferentiated cell reproduction

10

What is cancer marked by?

Uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells

11

Another name for tumor:

Neoplasm

12

What is a neoplasm

Mass of new tissue which grows independently from surrounding tissues and has no function

13

Characteristics of benign tumors:

- Localized growths
- Solid, well defined borders
- Grow slowly and remain stable in size
- Inhibition
- Usually easily removed and don't recur

14

Why can benign still cause problems?

Crowding and obstructions

15

What is inhibition?

Stop growing when they reach the border of other tissues

16

Characteristics of malignant tumors

- Grows aggressively
- Irregular in shape, no defined borders
- Cuts through other tissues causing injury
- Varying degrees of differentiation from parent cells

17

Characteristics of malignant cells

- Unregulated mitosis
- Loss of specialization and differentiation
- No contact inhibition
- Altered cell structure
- Transplantability
- Promote own survival

18

Progressive mutations can lead to?

Greater deviation and sometimes immortality

19

What is transplantability?

Ability to break away and grow elsewhere

20

How does malignant cells promote their own survival?

Create vascular and support structures for own use

21

What is the key step that separates benign from malignant tumors?

Angiogenesis

22

What is angiogenesis?

Formation of new blood vessels from old

23

How is angiogenesis used in normal body function?

Integral in would healing formation of granulation tissue

24

What is metastasis?

Process where cancer cells spread from their primary site to distant organs and tissues

25

What happens as malignant cells spread?

They access vascular and lymphatic systems (even possible to create their own) allowing them to spread to distant parts of the body

26

What two primary factors are central to all origins of cancer?

Carcinogens
Immune impairment

27

What are carcinogens?

Substances which can cause genetic mutation in cells through exposure

28

What is immune impairment?

Lessens bodies ability to fight and control abnormal cell growth

29

Carcinogens can either be?
Examples?

External: chemicals, substances, viruses
Internal: inherited mutations, hormones

30

What are some general risk factors?

Heredity
Age
Gender
Poverty
Stress
Diet: obesity
Occupation
Infections
Tobacco, recreational drug, and alcohol use
Sun exposure

31

Where does mutation occur?

Cells' DNA

32

How do these mutations occur?

Can be inherited via genetic link from parents or acquired during life due to exposure to carcinogens

33

Initiation of cancer cells?

CA cells arise from "normal" cells due to change in the cells' genetic structure

34

Exposure to promoting agents causes mutations to do what?

Express themselves and/or mutated cells to proliferate

35

Some carcinogens function as both what?

Initiators and promoters

36

What happens during progression?

- Cancer cells increase in proliferation rate
- Formation of tumor
- Spread of cancer cells outside of tumor

37

Summary: Initiation

Initiators cause cellular mutation

38

Summary: Promotion

Carcinogen exposure causes expression of mutant genetics

39

Summary: Progression

Increasing malignant behavior and spread

40

What are some ways of prevention?

- Avoiding exposure to carcinogens/reducing risk factors
- Follow workplace safety guidelines
- General lifestyle changes

41

What are some general lifestyle changes?

Quit smoking/limit drinking
Eat healthy
Wear sunscreen/limit sun exposure
Exercise
Stress reduction

42

What are some ways of diagnosing cancer?

Imaging
Cytology
Tumor markers
Visualization
Lab tests: blood, urine
Grading
Staging

43

Examples of imaging

X-ray
CT
MRI
Ultrasounds
Angiography

44

What is cytology?

Tissue sample taken from fluid aspiration, biopsy

45

Which examination of cells can reveal differences in tumor cell from normal or parent cells?

Cytological

46

What are tumor markers?

Biochemical indicators of tumors which can be found in ALL body tissue when tumors are present

47

Examples of visualization

Colonoscopy
Bronchoscopy

48

What does diagnosis grading mean?

Level of differentiation from parent cell

49

TNM stands for

Tumor- size of tumor
Node- lymph node involvement
Metastasis- spread to other areas

50

What are some types of medical treatments?

Surgery
Pharmacological (chemotherapy)
Radiation

51

What does nursing care post surgery include?

General post op care
TCDB
Monitor for bleeding
Infection control

52

Anti-neoplastic meds inhibit?

DNA and/or RNA production or replication f

53

Anti-neoplastic: Alkylating

Busulfan
Cylophophamide

54

Anti-neoplastic: Antibiotics

Bleomycin
Dactinomycin

55

Anti-neoplastic: Antimetabolites

Fluorouracil
Methotrexate

56

Nursing care for Chemo: Hormones

Block hormones used for cancer cell growth

57

Nursing care for Chemo: Antianemics

Help support RBC
Correct anemia

58

General Chemo side effects include?

GI upsets
Alopecia
Fatigue
Anemia
Neutropenia
Thrombocytopenia

59

What is part of nursing care for chemo patients?

- Infection control: neutropenic precautions
- Promote fluid intake and nutriton
- Monitor kidney, liver function (especially with anti-neoplastic drugs)
- Activity tolerance
- Educate on side effects/changes: urine color change
- Psychosocial, sexual, spiritual health

60

What are some clinical manifestations of cancer?

Change in normal body functions (bowel, bladder pattern, GI upset)
Hematological changes
Infection
Cachexia
Paraneoplastic syndromes
Pain
Psychological stress

61

Nursing care for external beam

Monitor site
Educate patient on cleaning (mild soap, pat dry, don't soak)
Protect yourself

62

Nursing care for Brachytherapy

Minimize time in room/maintain distance
Don't dislodge pellet
Keep lead container and tongs in room
Activity, skin tears, hazards of immobility

63

What is brachytherapy?

Placing radioactive material directly inside or next to tumor

64

What is an external beam?

High energy x-ray machine to direct radiation to tumor

65

What is the machine used for external beam therapy?

Linear accelerator

66

What is cachexia?

Wasting/rapid weight loss caused by metabolic demands of cancer

67

What is paraneoplastic syndrome?

Caused by production of biological chemicals at sites OTHER THAN where cancer is

68

What is tumor lysis syndrome?

Breakdown of cancer cells = increase in intracellular contents in circulation