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Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (19):
1

micro and macro complications of diabetes

micro = eyes, kidneys, nerves
macro = PVD, coronary artery disease, stroke
also neuro somewhere

2

what is type 1 diabetes

autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta islet cells leading to absolute insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia, requires insulin

3

what is the natural history of type 2 diabetes

initially beta cell functino increases with insulin resistance to maintain blood glucose but then they wear out and beta cell function worsens, and there is resistance to insulin so glycemic control doesnt work

4

what fasting plasma glucose is diagnostic of diabetes

7

5

what HbA1c is diagnostic of diabetes

>6.5%

6

what random blood glucose is diagnostic of diabetes

11

7

what does c peptide indicate

endogenous insulin production levels

8

what is risk of microvascular complications related to?

glycemic control
BP control
lipids and smoking

9

recommended cholesterol level for t2dm

less than 4

10

type 2 diabetes management

diet
exercise
weight loss
oral anti-diabetic agents
glucose monitoring
surveillance for complications

11

benefits and disadvantages of exercise in diabetes management

increases glucose uptake and in longer term BGLs decrease
but hypoglycemia can occur up to 24 hours after
and during exercise stress hormones can lead to short term glucose increase
but still best to exercise consistently and regularly

12

what does HbA1c measure

glycemic control by measuring amount of non-enzymatic glycation of hemoglobin

13

intensive glycaemic control mainly benefits what complications

microvascular

14

first line therapy in t2dm? mechanism?

metformin
inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis

15

3 stages of diabetic retinopathy

non-proliferative
pre-proliferative
proliferative

16

basic pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy

AGEs in retinal microcascular cause areas of the retina to become ischemic. VEGF signalling leads to proliferation of blood vessels into the areas of ischemia , but these new vessels are leaky and cause vitreous haemmorhage, killing photoreceptors

17

definition of diabetic kidney disease

persistent albuminuria or persistent egfr<60ml/min/1.73m

18

2 broad types of diabetic neuropathy

distal symmetric polyneuropathy
autonomic neuropathy

19

types of things caused by autonomic neuropathy

postural hypotension
gastroporesis (delayed gastric emptying)
nocturnal diarrhoea