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5.4 Hormonal Communication > Diabetes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (15):

Define diabetes mellitus.

A condition in which blood glucose concentrations cannot be controlled effectively.


What are stem cells?

Unspecialised cells that have the potential to develop into any type of cell.


Describe diabetes mellitus.

It is a condition in which the body is no longer able to produce sufficient insulin to control its blood glucose concentration. It can lead to hyperglycaemia after a meal rich in carbohydrates and sugars.


What is type 1 diabetes thought to be a result of?

An autoimmune response in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys beta cells. Type 1 diabetes may also result from a viral attack.


What is a person with type 1 diabetes no longer able to do?

Synthesise sufficient insulin and cannot store excess glucose as glycogen. excess glucose is not removed quickly, leaving a prolonged period of high concentration.


What happens to a person with type 1 diabetes when their blood glucose concentration is too low?

There is no store of glycogen to be converted into glucose therefore the blood glucose concentration falls to low level which can result in hypoglycaemia.


What is type 2 diabetes?

When someone can't produce enough insulin but they are able to produce some. In type 2 diabetes the blood glucose concentration is almost permanently raised, which can damage major organs.


What factors seem to bring an earlier onset of Type 2 diabetes?

Lack of regular exercise
A diet high in sugars, particularly refined sugars
Being of Asian of Afro-Caribbean origin
Family history (genetics)


What are the ways that type 1 diabetes can be treated?

Usually using insulin injections
Insulin pump therapy
Islet cell transplantation
A complete pancreas transplant
Recent study shows that it could be treated using stem cells.


What is insulin pump therapy?

A small device constantly pumps insulin (at a controlled rate) into the bloodstream through a needle which is permanently inserted into the skin.


What is islet cell transplantation?

Healthy beta cells from the pancreas of a deceased donor are implanted into the pancreas of someone with Type 1 diabetes.


How is Type 2 diabetes usually treated?

By making lifestyle changes. A Type 2 diabetic will be advised to lose weight, exercise regularly and carefully monitor their diet , taking care to match carbohydrate intake and use. Can be supplemented with medication that reduces the amount of glucose the liver releases to bloodstream or that boosts the amount of insulin released from the pancreas.


How did insulin used to be extracted?

From animals, usually form pigs, as they matched human DNA the closest.


How has bacteria been used to create insulin?

Through genetic modification.


What are the benefits to using insulin from genetically modified bacteria?

It is an exact copy of human insulin, therefore it is faster acting and more effective.
Less chance of developing a tolerance to the insulin
Less chance of rejection due to an immune response
Lower risk of infection
Cheaper to manufacture the insulin that to extract
Manufacturing process more adaptable to demand
People are less likely to have moral objections.