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DEN303 Endocrine > Diabetes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (13)
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1

How to diagnose diabetes?

Symptoms and random plasma glucose > 11.1mol
Fasting plasma > 7.7mol
HbA1c >48mmol/L

2

Normal blood glucose?

4-7mmol/l

3

Symptoms of diabetes (type I)

Increased thirst, polyuria, weight loss, fatigue, blurred vision, nausea

4

Define type I and type II diabetes?

Type 1: autoimmune condition causing destruction of beta cells in islets of langerhans --> insulin dependent

Type 2: combination of insulin resistance and and insulin deficiency

5

Difference between type I and type II?

Type I - sudden onset of symptoms
Type II - asymptomatic for long periods - can get long term complications presenting if undiagnosed

6

What are micro and macrovascular symptoms of diabetes?

Macro: stroke, MI, peripheral vascular disease
Micro: retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy

7

Tx of type I diabetes?

Insulin

8

Symptoms of hypoglycaemia

Shaking, increase HR, sweating, dizzy, hunger, impaired vision, irritable

9

Symptoms seen type II diabetes?

Increased weight - central obesity, hypertension

10

Tx type II?

1. Weight loss and lifestyle
2. Medications

11

Name medications that can be used in type II diabetes

Insulin
Metformin - doesn't cause hypoglycaemia or weight gain
Sulphonylureas - stimulate insulin release e.g gliclazide

Others: insulin, ascarbose, pioglitazone

12

Emergency management of hypoglycaemic pt?

Depend on level of consciousness
1. Oral glucose - 10-20mg - check blood sugar levels can be repeated
2. IM 1mg glucagon
3. IV glucose 75ml 20% glucose, 100ml 10% glucose

13

How does diabetes affect dentistry?

Increase periodontal
Increase caries
Dry mouth - type I autoimmune
Increased risk of infection
Stress can raise blood glucose levels