Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (13)
How to diagnose diabetes?
Symptoms and random plasma glucose > 11.1mol
Fasting plasma > 7.7mol
Normal blood glucose?
Symptoms of diabetes (type I)
Increased thirst, polyuria, weight loss, fatigue, blurred vision, nausea
Define type I and type II diabetes?
Type 1: autoimmune condition causing destruction of beta cells in islets of langerhans --> insulin dependent
Type 2: combination of insulin resistance and and insulin deficiency
Difference between type I and type II?
Type I - sudden onset of symptoms
Type II - asymptomatic for long periods - can get long term complications presenting if undiagnosed
What are micro and macrovascular symptoms of diabetes?
Macro: stroke, MI, peripheral vascular disease
Micro: retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy
Tx of type I diabetes?
Symptoms of hypoglycaemia
Shaking, increase HR, sweating, dizzy, hunger, impaired vision, irritable
Symptoms seen type II diabetes?
Increased weight - central obesity, hypertension
Tx type II?
1. Weight loss and lifestyle
Name medications that can be used in type II diabetes
Metformin - doesn't cause hypoglycaemia or weight gain
Sulphonylureas - stimulate insulin release e.g gliclazide
Others: insulin, ascarbose, pioglitazone
Emergency management of hypoglycaemic pt?
Depend on level of consciousness
1. Oral glucose - 10-20mg - check blood sugar levels can be repeated
2. IM 1mg glucagon
3. IV glucose 75ml 20% glucose, 100ml 10% glucose