Diabetes Mellitus Flashcards Preview

Endocrinology > Diabetes Mellitus > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diabetes Mellitus Deck (24):
1

Endocrine pancreas

  • Islets of langerhans
    • alpha cells produce glucagon
    • beta cells produce insulin

2

Normal blood glucose

75-125

3

Glucagon

  • gluconeogenesis and glycolysis in liver
    • epinephrine also does this

4

glycogenolysis

  • breakdown of glycogen to it's glucose components

5

gluconeogenesis

  • conversion of protein and fat substrate to glucose

6

Type 1 diabetes

  • more common in dogs
  • insulin dependant juvenile dz in humans

7

Type 2 diabetes

  • more common in cats
  • non-insulin-dependent diabetes adult onset in humans

8

Secondary diabetes

  • Pancreatic disease
  • Hormonal
  • Drug-induced
  • Insulin receptor abnormalities
  • Specific genetic syndromes

9

Consequence of diestrus in intact diabetic patients

Diestrus => inc progesterone => inc Growth Hormone => Peripheral insulin resistence

10

Clinical signs of diabetes Mellitus

  • Not very sick
    • PU/PD
    • Weight loss
  • Sick
    • Dehydration
    • Depression
    • Anorexia
    • Tachypnea
    • Vomiting

11

Insulin depletion is a ____ event

catabolic

12

Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus

  1. Clinical Signs
  2. Persistant hyperglycemia > 150
  3. Glycosuria

13

Uterine pathologies can be _____ mediated

Progesterone

14

Complicating coexisting problems with diabetes mellitus

  1. acute pancreatitis
  2. renal disease
  3. liver disease
  4. cardiovascular disease
  5. infections
  6. sepsis

15

Rapid acting insulin (insulin R)

  • used in veterinary emergencies
  • given SQ
  • absorbed in 15-20 minutes
  • peaks at around 4-6 hours
  • lasts about 6-8 hours

16

Intermediate acting insulines

 

  • Vetsulin
    • insulin plus amorphous insulin (more rapid action)
  • NPH

17

Ultra long acting insulin

  • protamine, Zinc & Iletin
    • may only cover animals for 12 hours
  • Insulin glargine

18

standard starting dose

(not so sick patient)

  • NPH - dogs
  • PZI or Glargine insulin - cats
  • starting dose - 0.5 unit per Kg SQ divided BID

19

Brain Insurance for insulin overdose

  • Glucagon Rx for seizing patient
  • Karo syrup for conscious person

20

Monitoring the diabetic patient

  • Clinical signs: PU/PD
  • Spot blood glucose tests by DVM
  • Blood testing by pet owner
  • Blood glucose tests by DVM
  • Serum fructosamine and HB...
  • Urine glucose and ketones

21

Somogyi reaction

Posthypoglycemic hyperglycemia

-Fido getting too much insulin in the am

-solve this by splitting dose

22

Oral hypoglycemic drugs

  • Glipizide
  • Not used in dogs
  • Only used for type 2 DM in cats

23

Common causes of insulin resistance in the dog

  • Estrus and diestrus
  • Progestagen Rx
  • Acromegaly (too much Growth hormone)
  • Hypercortisolism
  • Bacterial infection

24

Obesity

  • Causes insulin resistance in humans and cats