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Flashcards in Diabetes Testing Deck (15):

Who should be screened for diabetes?

BMI ≥ 25 + 1 or more risk factors. Without risk factors start to screen > 45 yrs. If normal (A1C < 5.7, FPG ≤ 100) retest in 3 years


What stressors may release hormones that increase blood sugar?

surgery, infection, stroke, MI, emotional stress/anxiety


What conditions might affect blood glucose?

Cushing’s syndrome, acromegaly, pheochromocytoma, glucagonoma, liver disease, pancreatitis


What are the differences between fingerstick and plasma glucose tests?

Venous glucose levels may be higher than capillary levels for fasting samples and random testing. Venous levels lower than capillary
2 h after oral glucose load


What is a hemoglobin A1C and its parameters?

Glucose irreversibly binds to the RBC and gives a 2-3 month average blood sugar. ≥ 6.5% Diabetes. 5.7-6.4% Abnormal. < 5.7% Normal


What factors might cause an increase in hgb A1C?

iron deficiency, alcohol toxicity, lead toxicity, late pregnancy due to iron deficiency


What factors might cause a decrease in hgb A1C?

hemolytic anemia, chronic blood loss, pregnancy, chronic renal failure


How frequently should a diabetic's A1C be checked?

At least twice yearly if meeting DM treatment goals. Test quarterly if previous medication change or not meeting treatment goals


What is a fructosamine test?

serum sample that measures ketoamines and tells 1-2 weeks of average blood glucose control. rarely used


When should you test for ketones in the urine?

pregnancy, elevated blood sugars >300, when suspicious for DKA


With what conditions are ketones expected in the urine?

poorly controlled DM, DKA, starvation, poisoning, anesthesia, alkalosis


What can cause false positive tests of ketonuria?

levodopa, phenazopyrine, valproic acid, Vit C, dehydration


At what blood glucose levels is it common to find glucosuria?

blood glucose >160-180. leads to osmotic diuresis


What levels of proteinuria are needed to diagnose albuminuria?

protein needs to be ≥300 mg to show up on a regular urine dipstick. microalbuminuria occurs when albumin excretion is 30-300 mg/g


What is needed to confirm a diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy?

2 out of 3 samples that are abnormal within a 6 month period. screening begins 5 yrs of diagnosis of Type I, at time of diagnosis for type II, and then annually for both