Flashcards in Diabetes Testing Deck (15):
Who should be screened for diabetes?
BMI ≥ 25 + 1 or more risk factors. Without risk factors start to screen > 45 yrs. If normal (A1C < 5.7, FPG ≤ 100) retest in 3 years
What stressors may release hormones that increase blood sugar?
surgery, infection, stroke, MI, emotional stress/anxiety
What conditions might affect blood glucose?
Cushing’s syndrome, acromegaly, pheochromocytoma, glucagonoma, liver disease, pancreatitis
What are the differences between fingerstick and plasma glucose tests?
Venous glucose levels may be higher than capillary levels for fasting samples and random testing. Venous levels lower than capillary
2 h after oral glucose load
What is a hemoglobin A1C and its parameters?
Glucose irreversibly binds to the RBC and gives a 2-3 month average blood sugar. ≥ 6.5% Diabetes. 5.7-6.4% Abnormal. < 5.7% Normal
What factors might cause an increase in hgb A1C?
iron deficiency, alcohol toxicity, lead toxicity, late pregnancy due to iron deficiency
What factors might cause a decrease in hgb A1C?
hemolytic anemia, chronic blood loss, pregnancy, chronic renal failure
How frequently should a diabetic's A1C be checked?
At least twice yearly if meeting DM treatment goals. Test quarterly if previous medication change or not meeting treatment goals
What is a fructosamine test?
serum sample that measures ketoamines and tells 1-2 weeks of average blood glucose control. rarely used
When should you test for ketones in the urine?
pregnancy, elevated blood sugars >300, when suspicious for DKA
With what conditions are ketones expected in the urine?
poorly controlled DM, DKA, starvation, poisoning, anesthesia, alkalosis
What can cause false positive tests of ketonuria?
levodopa, phenazopyrine, valproic acid, Vit C, dehydration
At what blood glucose levels is it common to find glucosuria?
blood glucose >160-180. leads to osmotic diuresis
What levels of proteinuria are needed to diagnose albuminuria?
protein needs to be ≥300 mg to show up on a regular urine dipstick. microalbuminuria occurs when albumin excretion is 30-300 mg/g