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Fat content of average American diet: % fat, grams of fat, calories of fat

  • % fat = 25-35%
  • Grams of fat = 70g for a 70kg person
    • 9kcal/gram of fat
  • Calories of fat = 630 kcal
    • ~30% of 2100kcal daily intake


Pool size of stored triglyceride in adipose tissue

  • Adipose tissue accounts for ~20-30% of body weight
  • 70kg person with 25% body fat = 18kg of triglyceride stored in adipose tissue
    • 18kg x 9kcal/g = 157,000kcal of stored energy


Pool size of stored triglyceride in liver, skeletal muscle

Contain small amounts of stored triglyceride (hundreds of grams)


Physical property differentiating saturated/trans fats from unsaturated fats

  • Saturated/trans fats: form crystals at room temperature --> solid
    • Lard, manteca, red meat fat
  • Unsaturated fatty acids: typically liquid at room temperature
    • Olive oil, corn oil, nut oils


Examples of foods high in saturated fats

Lard, manteca, fat in red meat


Examples of foods high in monounsaturated fat

Oleic acid (found in olive oil, canola oils)


Examples of foods high in omega-3 fats

Fish, other seafood


Examples of foods high in omega-6 fats

Vegetable oil, corn oil


Examples of foods high in polyunsaturated fat

Another way to say omega fat

Walnuts, sunflower seeds, peanut butter, tuna


Examples of foods high in trans fat

Margarine, partially hydrogenated oils, palm oil


Relationships between high fat diet & adverse health outcomes (atherosclerosis, obesity)

  • One possibility: high fat diet promotes weight gain
    • Increased energy intake (palatability of high fat diet)
    • Increased energy density
    • Difficulty sensing dietary fat due to small daily flux compared to large stored pool size
  • Monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats have beneficial effects on heart disease risk
  • Saturated fats and trans fats have adverse effects on CVD risk
    • Trans fats demonstrated to be "clearly the worst" 


Fat components of healthy diet

  • Mediterranean diet: fat from olive oil, limited amounts of cheese and yogurt
    • Protective for CVD risk
  • Unique benefits to omega-3 fats (Eskimos with high fat diet)
  • Fish oils prevent arrhythmias, thrombosis, sudden death in people with CAD
  • Nut oils are very high in fat but have very long chain lengths and large number of unsaturations
    • People who regularly consume nuts --> lower levels oc CVD, reduction in blood lipids
  • Plant sterols and stanols 
    • Modest reduction in serum LDL cholesterol