Living with Diabetes Flashcards Preview

DEMS: Unit II > Living with Diabetes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Living with Diabetes Deck (13):
1

Signs/sx of new onset diabetes

  • Polyuria: frequent and nocturia
  • Polydipsia: excessive thirst and drinking
  • Hyperphagia: Eating lots
  • Weight loss: as a result of protein catabolism for gluconeogenesis
  • Blurry vision: osmotic shift causes lens swelling
  • Fatigue
  • High blood glucose
  • If keto acidosis from hyperglycemia → abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting

2

  • Type 1 Diabetes: 
    • Age of Onset
    • Nutritional Status at time of Disease Onset
    • Prevalence
    • Genetic predisposition

  • Usually during childhood or puberty; symptoms develop rapidly
  • Frequently undernourished
  • 10% of diagnosed diabetics
  • Moderate

3

  • Type 2 Diabetes: 
    • Age of Onset
    • Nutritional Status at time of Disease Onset
    • Prevalence
    • Genetic predisposition

  • Frequently after age 35; symptoms develop gradually
  • Obesity usually present
  • 90% of diagnosed diabetics
  • Very Strong

4

  • Type 1 Diabetes
    • Defect or Deficiency
    • Frequency of Ketosis
    • Plasma Insulin
    • Acute Complications
    • Treatment with Hypoglycemic Drugs

  • β cells are destroyed by Ab, eliminating production of insulin
  • Common
  • Low to absent
  • Ketoacidosis
  • Unresponsive

5

  • Type 2 Diabetes
    • Defect or Deficiency
    • Frequency of Ketosis
    • Plasma Insulin
    • Acute Complications
    • Treatment with Hypoglycemic Drugs

  • Insulin resistance combined with inability of β cells to produce appropriate quantities of insulin
  • Rare
  • High early in disease; low in disease of long duration
  • Hyperosmolar state
  • Responsive

6

Type 1 Diabetes tx

  • Insulin always necessary

7

Type 2 Diabetes tx

  • Diet
  • exercise
  • oral hypoglycemic drugs
  • insulin may or may not be necessary
  • Reduction of risk factors: smoking cessation, BP control, treatment of dyslipidemia → essential to therapy

8

Characteristics of gestational diabetes

  • Pregnancy
  • Positive family history of GD
  • Delivery Complications, diagnose with two subsequent blood glucose tests.
  • (More info to come in Life Cycles)

9

Characteristics of pancreatic diabetes

  • Surgical removal of pancreas or damage due to pancreatitis causes pancreatic diabetes
  • High glucose levels due to β cell destruction, so shares many features with type 1 diabetes
  • Can have malabsorption
  • Individuals can be very underweight
  • Glucagon deficiency
  • May occur in alcoholics with liver disease
  • These individuals are very prone to hypoglycemia
  • Worse neuropathy because of combined neurotoxicity of EtOh and diabetes

10

Patient Tools for Blood Glucose Monitoring

  • Home glucose monitoring → finger pricking
  • Continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring (CGM)

11

Factors ==> hyperglycemia in diabetics

  • Stress (cortisol)
  • increased carbohydrate intake
  • [occasionally] exercise (due to epi)

12

Factors ==> hypoglycemia in diabetics

  • exercise
  • glucose lowering medications
  • adrenal insufficiency

13