Digestion Flashcards Preview

Bio 340-Ashley > Digestion > Flashcards

Flashcards in Digestion Deck (31):
1

A secretion of the liver consisting of water, bile salts, bile pigments, cholesterol, lecithin, and several ions; it emulsifiers lipids prior to their digestion

Bile salts

2

A soft rounded mass, usually food, that is swallowed.

Bolus

3

The secreting cell of a gastric gland that produces pepsinogen, the precursor of the enzyme pepsin, and the enzyme gastric lipase. Cell in the parathyroid glands that secretes parathyroid hormone(PTH)

Chief cells

4

The semi fluid moisture of partly digested food and digestive secretions found in the stomach and small intestine during digestion of a meal

Chyme

5

The portion of the large intestine consisting of ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid portions.

Colon

6

The act of swallowing

Deglutition

7

The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food to simple molecules that can be absorbed and used by body cells.

Digestion

8

The dispersion of large lipid globules into smaller, uniformly distributed particles in the presence of bile.

Emulsification

9

The part of the nervous system that is embedded in the submucosa and muscularis of the GI tract; governs motility and secretions of the GI tract

Enteric nervous system ENS

10

A cell of the mucosa of the GI tract that secrets hormones that governs function of the GI tract

Enteroendocrine cells

11

Glands in the mucosa of the stomach composed of cells that empty their secretions into narrow channels called gastric pits.

Gastric glands

12

A continuous tube running through the ventral body cavity extending from the mouth to the anus. Also called alimentary canal.

Gastrointestinal tract

13

A liver cell

Hepatocyte

14

A gland that opens into the surface of the intestinal mucosa and secrets digestive enzymes. Also called a crypt lieberkuhn

Intestinal gland

15

One of the many lymphatic vessels in villi of the intestines that absorb triglycerides and other lipids from digested foods.

Lacteals

16

Chewing

Mastication

17

Microscopic, finger like projections of the plasma membranes of cells that increase surface area for absorption, especially in the small intestine and proximal convoluted tubules of the kidneys.

Microvilli

18

A muscular layer of an organ

Muscularis

19

A network of autonomic axons and postganglionic cell bodies located in the muscularis of the GI tract

Myenteric plexus

20

A type of secretory cell in gastric glands that produces HCL acid and intrinsic factor.

Parietal cells

21

One of the paired salivary glands located inferior and anterior to the ears and connected to the oral cavity via a duct that opens into they inside of the cheek opposite the maxillary second molar tooth.

Parotid glands

22

Protein-digesting enzyme secreted by chief cells of the stomach in the inactive form pepsinogen, which is converted to the active pepsin by HCL

Pepsin

23

Successive muscular contractions along the wall of a hollow muscular structure

Peristalsis

24

The largest serous membrane of the body that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the viscera within it.

Peritoneum

25

An enzyme in saliva that initiates the chemical breakdown of starch.

Salivary amylase

26

One pair of salivary gland situated in the floor of the mouth deep to the mucous membrane and to the side if the lingual frenulum, with a duct that opens into the floor of the mouth.

Sublingual glands

27

One of a pair of salivary glands found inferior to the base of the tongue to the mucous membrane in the posterior part of the floor of the mouth, posterior to the sublingual glands, with a duct situated on the side of the lingual frenulum.

Submandibular glands

28

A layer of connective tissue located deep to a mucous membrane, as in the GI tract or the urinary bladder; the submucosa connects the mucosa to the muscularis layer.

Submucosa

29

A network of autonomic nerve fibers located in the superficial part of the submucous layer of the small intestine.

Submucosal plexus

30

A projection of the intestinal mucosal cells containing connective tissue, blood vessels, and a lymphatic vessel; functions in the absorption of the end products of digestion

Villi

31

Absorption

Intake of fluids or other substances by cells of the skin or mucous membranes; the passage of digested foods from the gastrointestinal tract into blood or lymph