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Flashcards in Digestive System Deck (56):
1

What are congenital abnormalities with disorders of the oral cavity

Cleft lip/palate
Which arises in the 7th week gestation
Feeding problem as infant,speech problems

2

What are disorders in the oral cavity

Congenital abnormalities

Inflammatory lesions

3

What are 3 main disorders of the oral cavity Infections

Candidiasis
Herpes Simplex type 1
Syphillis

4

What are 4 main Disorders of the oral cavity
Dental problem

Caries
Gingivitis
Periodontal disease
Hyperkeratosis

5

What are 3 Disorders of the oral cavity
Salivary gland disorder

Sialadenitis
Mumps Infectious parotitis
Non Infectious parotitis

6

What is an inflammatory lesions disorder of the oral cavity and describe what it would look like and can it heal

Aphthous ulcers
Step sangria is involved as oral resident flora
Small painful lesions that are on the mucosa, buccal mucosa,floor of the mouth,soft palate, lateral borders of tongue
Heal spontaneously

7

What is Candidiasis disorder of the oral cavity and describe what it looks like

It is an infection
Candida albicans is the causative agent
Happen because of a depressed immune system
Oral candidiasis(thrush)comes from broad spectrum antibiotics, during or after cancer therapy, immunocomproised indiv with diabetes

Red, swollen,irregular pat he's of curslike material

8

What is Herpes Simplex type 1 disorder of the oral cavity and how is it transmitted

It is a infection
Transmitted by kissing or close contact

9

How is herpes simplex activated

Stress, trauma and other infection

10

Is there treatment for herpes simplex

Yes only acute
Acute stage may be alleviated by antiviral medication
Other wise No and stays dormant in sensory ganglion

11

What is syphilis disorder in the oral cavity and there 2 stages

Caused by treponema pallidum
Can be oral lesions

PRIMARY Stage
painless ulcer on to tongue,lip and heal spontaneously

SECONDARY Stage
red macules on palate

12

Is syphilis contagious

Yes, highly

13

What is the Treatment for syphillis

Long acting pencillin

14

What is Caries in the oral cavity
what causes it

Bacteria break down sugars and produce large quantities of lactic acid which dissolves teeth
Caused by Step mutants and lactobacillus

15

What type of cancer can be in the oral cavity

Squamous cell carcinoma
Kaposi sarcoma
Lip vancer

16

What is Squamous carcinoma

Common in over 40

Type of cancer

Causes: smokers, leukoplakia, alcohol abuse

17

What is a Kaposi sarcoma

Cancer with people who have aids

18

What is Lip cancer caused by

Common in smokers

19

Name 3 types Salivary Gland Disorders

Sialadenitis-inflammation
Mumps-infectious parotitis
Non-infectious parototid-inadequate fluid intake

20

What is Dysphagia

Difficulty swallowing

21

What are the Causes of dysphagia

Neurological deficit ( stroke, brain damage, infection)

Muscular disorder(muscular dystrophy)

Mechanical obstruction( developmental anomaly, stenosis-narrowing of esophagus, tumour,outpouching)

22

What happens to people with dysphagia

Pain with swallowing
Inability to swallow larger pieces

23

What are 4 conditions that can arise from dysphagia

Congenital atresia(developmental anomaly, upper and lower esophageal segments are separated)

24

What is Esophageal Cancer and how does it happen

Squamous cell carcinoma
Usually In distal esophagus
Poor prognosis
Associated with chronic irritation: chronic esophagitus,narrowing or esophagus, histal hernia,smoking or alcohol abuse
Significant Dysphagis in later changes

25

What is Histal Hernia and what are the sign and symptoms

Stomach protrudes into the thoracic cavity
1-sliding :portions of stomach and gastroesophageal junction slide up above diaphragm
2-paraesophageal:part of fundus of stomach moves up through weak hiatus in the diaphragm and get trapped

S&S
Heartburn
Frequent belching
Discomfort with laying down
substetnal pain that radiates to shoulder and jaw

26

Whst is Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and can it be treated

Reflux of gastric contents into distal esophagus causes erosion and inflammation

Often seen in conjunction with histal hernia

Severity depends on ability to stay closed(sphincter)

Treated with medication to reduce reflux and inflammation

27

What is hepatitis

Inflammation of liver

28

What 2 mechanisms cause liver damage in viral hepatitis

Intracellular virus replication-
hepatocyte cell lysis( Hep C)

Aggressive immune response to virally infected cells-causes severe inflammation and hepatocyte damage(HBV)

29

What 3 different range of severity in viral hepatitis

Sub clinical- no symptoms
Fulminant-acute onset
Liver failure

30

What are Possible outcomes caused by hepatitis

Regeneration of tissue
Scar tissue formation
Hepatocellular carcinoma

31

What happens with scarring from cirrhosis affects liver

Prevents bile flow
Prevents normal blood flow

32

Which viral hepatitis are acute

HAV
HBV

33

What happens if viral hepatitis becomes chronic and when does it occur

Leads to fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma

Occurs in 5-10% of cases of adult onset HBV infection
Occurs in 50% of cases in HCV infection

34

What is the Hep D virus
Is RNA or DNA
What is the transmission

RNA virus
Cannot replicate on own--requires HBV co Infection
Which increases severity of HBV
Blood borne transmission

35

What is Hep E virus
Is it RNA or DNA
What is the transmission

RNA virus
Similar to A but a bit more serious especially in Asia and Africa
Fecal oral transmission

36

What is Hep C
Is is RNA or DNA
What is the transmission

RNA virus
HCV mutates frequently and virus changes antigens to frequently
No vaccine
Transmission exposure by blood
Sexual transmission

37

What happens if you have Chronic Hep C

Cirrhosis( 10-20%)
Hepatocellular carcinoma -20x higher in chronic HCV

38

What is Hep B virus
Is it a RNA or DNA
What is the transmission

DNA
Blood, bodily fluids and mother to neonatal transmission
Vaccine

39

What can happen later in life after Hep B is passed through neonate

No immune aggression against virus
Cause hepatocyte damage and symptoms of infection

40

What is the difference between Chronic Hep B and Chronic Hep C

Chronic HBV-results because of a failure of immune system to respond

Chronic HCV-results in spite of otherwise well activated immune response which will become more chronic

41

What are the 3 stages of the course of infection in Hepatitis

Pre-icteric( no jaundice)
Ictwric(jaundice)
Post-icteric(recovery)

42

What is pre-icteric phase

No jaundice ( increase in bilirubin which the liver can not breakdowm)
Prodromal phase

43

What is icteric phase
What are thes signs and symptoms

Jaundice

S/S reflect impaired function of inflamed/damaged liver

Swelling and pain

Elevated clotting time

Jaundice - decrease bilirubin metabolism

Dark Urlne

Light course stool- decrease bilirubin metabolism

44

What is a post- icteric phase

Recovery
Resolutions of Infection makes it tolerable with the sign and symptoms

45

What is the treatment of Hepatitis

Immunomodulators- interferon may stimulate immunity to virus which interfere with virus

Antiviral agents to reduce HBV viral burden

46

What is cirrhosis of the liver

Damage and scarring of the liver

47

Why does cirrhosis happen

Progressive liver destruction resulting from a number of liver diseases

48

What are some causes of Cirrhosis

Alcoholic liver disease
Hillary cirrhosis(immune disorder )
Post narcotic cirrhosis( hepatitis or chemical exposure)
Metabolic ( iron storage disorder)

49

What leads to scarring in normal liver architecture

Distortion of lobule bile ducts and blood vessels impairs function

Ischemia , biliary back up - inflammation which equals more damage

50

What first happens to the liver and then later what happens to the shape

First swells(edema)
Later will see shrinkage as it progrsses

51

What is cirrhosis related to pathophysiologically

Loss of normal hepatocyte function

Damage to liver architecture affecting bile flow

Damage to liver architecture affecting blood flow

52

What is the loss of function with loss of normal hepatocyte function

Impaired bilirubin metabolism(jaundice)
Impaired bile production (Impaired nutrient absorption)
Impaired clotting factor production
Impaired albumin production(edema)
Decreased iron storage( anemia)
Impaired steroid inactivation
Impaired detoxification

53

Why is ascites a problem

Upward pressure on diaphragm(impairs respiration)
Increased risk of peritontitis
Impaired digestion and absortion

54

Why is there impaired bile flow with loss of normal hepatocyte function/ liver damage

Obstruction jaundice(back up bile in liver)

Malnutrition ( reduced bile in intestine)

55

Why is there impaired blood flow with liver damage

Hepatic portal system is at hypertension:
Splenomegaly( hemolytic jaundice and decrease in platelets)

Malnutrition ( to much blood in stomach and intestine(congestion))

Ascites

56

is their a treatment to cirrhosis

No cure BUT supportive therapies

Albumin infusion
Clotting factor replacement
Hormone inhibitors
Antibiotics to reduce ammonia made by intestinal flora