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Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (29):
1

What is the endocrine system

Hormones in the blood

2

How do endocrine disorders arise/ caused

Hormone is secreted to excess
Hormone deficiency is present
Target cells for the hormone ate dysfunctional
Hereditary/congenital defects affect endocrine secretion
Blood supply to and endocrine tissue is affected
Endocrine tissue has undergone hyperplasia

3

How are endocrine disorders usually caused

Tumour(usually benign)

4

What are the signs and symptoms of endocrine disorder

Physiologic action of the hormone

Effects of tumour

5

What is a goitre

Enlargement of the thyroid gland

6

What is a endemic goitre

Low iodine levels

Cannot have normal T4 & T3 production

7

What is a toxic goitre

Thyroid gland is overstimulated-excessive T4 & T3 production will produce toxic effects

OR

Excessive TSH stimulation- goitrogens(triggers to keep producing)

8

What is a goitrogens

Block T3 & T4 secretion
- TSH levels rise
- TEH causes thyroid hyperplasia( goitre)

9

What is a condition that is associated with hyperthyroidism

Graves Disease

10

What type of pathophysiology is associated with Graves disease

Autoimmune which self is attacking thyroid

11

What are the signs and symptoms of Hyperthyroidism


Hypermetabolism
-always hot
-weight loss despite increased appetite

Increased sympathetic activity
-Heart palpitations
- tachycardia
- hypertension( vasoconstriction)

Protruding eyes( build up of tissues in orbit pushes eyes outward)

Staring/unblinking

May cause vision loss

12

What type of hormones and how are these affected with Graves disease

TSH level - not high
TRH level- not high
T4/T3 high

13

What are the 3 different types/conditions of Hyperthyroidism

Goitre
Graves disease- exophthalmos
Thyrotoxicosis- thyroid storm

14

What is Throtoxicosis and how is it caused

Hyperthyroidism

Sudden onset acute

Triggered by stress with acute adrenalin episode

15

Why can thyrotoxicosis be life threatening?

Hyperthermia
Tachycardia
Hypertension
Heart failure

16

What are 3 different types/ conditions in hypothroidism

Hashimotos
Myxedema
Cretinism

17

What are the signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism

Hypometablism
Decreased sympathetic activity

18

What is hashimotos

Autoimmune destruction of thyroid tissue
Insidious onset
I.mu e attack = inflammation

19

What is Myxedema

Severe hypothyroidism
Increased fluid

20

What is Cretinism

Only in kids
Low iodine which is a deficit in brain develpment

21

What is Cushing Syndrome and how is it caused

Excessive glucocorticoid secretion

Adrenal adenoma
Pituitary adenoma
Paraneopladtic syndrome( tumour in lung)
Iatrogenic( Dr caused...to much steriods/meds)

22

What are the signs and symptoms of Cushing disease

To much cortisol

Fat metabolism
-redistribution of body fat( moon face, buffalo hump)

Carbs metabolism
- diabetes like syndrome with elevated blood glucose)
-glucose sparing effects( gluconeogenesis)

Accelerated metabolism
- fragile skin
-stretch marks
-osteoporosis
- muscle wasting

Hypertension (RAAS)
Growth of hair

Immune suppression

23

What is Addison diseaze

Opposite of Cushing

Low cortisol

24

Sign and symptoms of Addison disease

Reflects Glucocorticoid ( cortisol)
Decrease glucose mobilization
Poor response to stress
Fatigue
Weight loss

Reflects mineralocorticoid( aldosterone)
Hypotension
Hypoatremia( blood sodium)
Hypokalemia( potasdium)
Cardiac arrhythmias and failure

Decreased in body hair

25

What is Hypoglycemia

Insulin shock
Overbundance of insulin

26

What are the neurological sign of hypoglycemia

CNS glucose deprivation
-inability to concentrate
-slurred speech
-lack of coordination
-staggering gait
-loss of consciousness
-seizures
-death

27

What are the sympathetic nervous system signs

Rapid heart rate
Pale skin
Anxiety
Diaphoresis
Tremors

28

What are the steps in hypoglycemia

Excess insulin in blood
Increased transport of glucose in cells
Hypoglycemia ( decrease CNS function)
Stimulates SNS
No glucose intake
Blood glucose levels decrease further
Coma and death

29

What is ketoacidosis

Insufficient Insulin level