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Flashcards in Digestive system Deck (105):
1

What does the Messentary do?

connects peritoneal organs to the back of the abdominal cavity and is made of adipose

2

What are the largest salivary glands? What kind of saliva does it produce?

Parotid salivary glands. produce serous saliva. (Bite into lemon).

3

How does Watery saliva assist in digestion? What are the water saliva glands called.

They are called serous saliva Helps with mechanics digestion. It lyses the cells

4

What are enzymes in the saliva

Salivary amylase, small amount of lipase

5

Tooth structure.

Crown, Neck, root, pulp cavity

6

Teeth anerobic infections

Impacted teeth... but to have them removed

7

What does salivary amylase do?

breaks starch into maltose

8

What is the muscle configuration of esophagus?

Top 1/3 is skeletal muscle (still can under go paristolis, Middle 1/3 mixed, lower third smooth muscles

9

Pyloric sphinter

Slowly releases to help prevent too much acid from going into the intestine

10

What is Pyloric stenosis? Who is most likely to be affected?

narrowing of pyloric sphinctor. Happens in infants, lead to anorexia

11

What are Pylorospasms?

Caused by meat food poisoning. Keeps the pyloric sphintor under tightness

12

What are examples of the direct digestive system?

oral cavity, oral pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine,, rectum, anus

13

What are some of organs or structures of the digestive system are indirect organs )or accessory)?

Gall bladder, pancreas, liver, salivary glands, teeth, tongue

14

What kinds of bonds are broken during chemical digestion?

They break covalent bonds

15

What is the function of the acid in the stomach?

To break the hydrogen bonds in food molecules breaking down their confirmations and allowing digestive enzymes access to break them further into monomers

16

What level do proteins need to be broken down to to be useful to the body

amino acids, dipeptide, or tripeptide

17

What lipids are not absorbable in their whole from? And to what form do they need to be broken down?

Tri-gylderides, They break down in monoglyceride and two free fatty acids

18

What is the maximum length of the GI system? What is a more common length?

30 ft. max, generally about 20 ft.

19

By what mechanisms do mechanical digestion occur in the digestive system?

Through chewing food and the churning in the stomach and through segmentation small intestines

20

What are the layers of the GI tract?

Mucosa, Submucosa, Muscularis, Serosa

21

What type of epithelium is mucosa layer made of in most of the GI tract?

simple Columnar epithelium

22

What type of epithelium is the mucosa layer made of in the esophagus and anus?

stratified squamous epithelium (non-keritized)

23

What are the tissue layers within the mucosa?

The epithelium, the lamina propria, the muscular mucosa

24

What kind of tissue is the Lamina propria made of? What are some differences though the GI system?

loose areolar connective tissue. It can be as thin a basement membrane, or can be thick forming the villi in the intestines

25

What are rugae, what is there function and where are they found?

They are in the stomach, they are folds in the lower stomach that allow the stomach to distend.

26

What produces pepsinogen? and how is it activated?

Chief cells - also called zymogenic cells. It is activated by hydrochoric acid. The HCL cleaves of a portion of the pepsinogen protein. The remaining portion is pepsin

27

What happened to your blood while you eat? and what is this change called?

The pH is raised. It is called the alkaline tide.

28

What it the stomach emptying phase called?

The intestinal phase

29

Alcohol Dehydrigenase

acetaldehyde

30

What is the role of histamine?

Primarily targets parietal cells (produce HCL) and secondarily Chief cells (Pepsinogen)

31

Where do you find the Serus acini? What do they produce?

In the pancreas

32

What is the "master digestive acid" released from the stomach that activates the others

Trypsinogen

33

What is the result of pancreatitis?

The trypsin can start to break to the pancreas itself. This can increase risk for pancreatic cancer

34

What is the function of secretin?

Secretin acts of the parietal cells and the chief cells to slow down chemical digestion. It also acts on the pancreas to signal the release of bicarbonate.

35

What produces the bile and where is it stored? What is its function?

It is produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder. It's function is emulsification

36

What is the organizational break down of the liver?

Lobules that are made up of sinusoids

37

What are the main components of the lobules of the liver?

hepatocytes, bile ducts, hepatic portal vein, Kupffer cells (macropahges), hepatic artery, central canal which how the hepatic vein.

38

What are the three components of the small intestine?

Duodenum, jejunum, ileum

39

Why are there more goblet cells in the lower intestine?

What is left is more viscus and needs goblets cell to keep it moving along, also microvilli are less important

40

What are the three structures that increase surface area in the small intestine?

Plicae circularis ---> Villi ----> microvilli

41

What kinds of structures are typically present in the submucosal layer?

blood vessels and glands, and MALTs

42

What are the two layers of the muscularis, and what is their function?

The mucularis is composed of two layers of muscle. The outer longintudal lay and the inner circular layer. They work together in parastolysis.

43

Where do lipid soluable molecules get pick up in the intestine?

Lacteals, into the lyphtatic system

44

What is the name of the structure with bile salts on the outside that envelopes lipids?

Micelle

45

What is entry to the large intestine caller? And what is the structure like?

Ileocecal sphincter. It really a one way valve

46

What are the taenia coli in the large intestine?

.... The create the Haustra and help with segmentation

47

What are the anal sphincters and how are they controlled?

Internal sphincter is smooth muscle and involuntaryThe External sphincter is skeletal muscle control (voluntary control)

48

What do the anal valves do?

Allow gas to pass without leakage of solids.

49

What are the taenia coli in the large intestine?

The three bands of longitudinal muscle. They create the Haustra and help with segmentation

50

What is an enterocyte?

An absorptive cell, most common in the small intestine. They contain the microvilli

51

Where do the Krebb cycle and the Electron transport chain take place?

In the mitochondria

52

What combine with Acetyl co-a and what 6 carbon molecule does it produce to start the Krebb cycle?

----- It creates citric acid

53

What combine with Acetyl co-a and what 6 carbon molecule does it produce to start the Krebb cycle?

Acetyl Co A combines with Oxaloacetic acid It creates citric acid

54

What is the first step of glycololisis. What enzyme is used and what is it's union?

Hexokinase

55

Where is the lesser -omentum- located? What is it?

It is a double fold of visceral peritoneum which has inside it the hepatic portal vein from the stomachs. It connects the less curvature of the stomach to the liver

56

Where does the Greater -omentum- attach? What is is mad of?

Attaches to the great curvature of the stomach to the transverse colon. Mad of vascularized adipose tissue

57

What are examples of organs that are retroperitoneal?

Pancreas and kidneys

58

What kind of antibodies are present in the mouth?

IGAs

59

What are the primary form of digestion occurs in the mouth? What is the secondary form?

Mechanical digestion - masticate food make boils. Chemical digestions - salivary amylase and lingual lipase

60

What is the name for the hole in the diaphragm that the esophagus passes through? What pathology is associated with problems with this hole?

The hiatus. Leads to hiatal hernia some of the stomach end up in the thoracic cavity.

61

What happens when the lower esophageal sphincter fails to open?

Esophagus overfilled, gets distended and can feel like intense pressure - like heart arrack?

62

What is the main cause of GERD? What is known as colloquially?

GERD is heartburn. It is cause be lower esophageal sprinter being left open.

63

What ate the three layers of muscle in the stomach? Which layer is extra compared to the rest of the digestive system? what is it's function?

The longitudinal muscle, the circular muscle (middle circular muscle) the oblique (inner oblique. The oblique is the additional layer. Allows churning.

64

What is chyme? What is it's release rate?

It is the pulpy acid fluid that is released to the small intestine from the stomach. If release ... about 1-2 tsps. every few minutes.

65

What are three ways that the stomach is protected from self digestion

Alkaline muccus produced from the goblet cells, tight junctions between the epithelial cells that prevent protons from moving into the lain propria, stomach lining is replaced every 2-3 days.

66

What are the invaginations of the stomach called?

Gastric pits

67

What kind of cells are in the gastric gland that is found lower down in the gastric pit. List them from closest to the surface to deepest.

Mucous neck cells, parietal cells, Chief cells (zymogenic cells), G cells (enteroendocrine cells), and -----------

68

In addition to pepsinoogen what else is secreted from chief cells, and what is another name for chief cells.

They secrete gastric lipase in addition to pepsinogen, and the are called zymogenic cells.

69

Describe the mucous neck cells aand their function.

They are particular gobble cells as the neck of the gastric gland that produce very viscous and alkaline muccous. They protect from the parietal cells that excrete HCL.

70

What is produced by the parietal cells?

Hydrocloric acid and intrinsic factor.

71

Describe how Receptor mediated endocytosis work with vitamin B12.

Vitamin B12 binds to intrinsic factor. The two together can bind to receptors, and then be pulled into the cell.

72

What is a paracrine? Which cells in the stomach as as paracrines?

A locally acting hormone. The G- cells and.....

73

What happens to the stomach during the gastric phase of digestion that "activates" the stomach?

stretch receptors sense distension, food raises pH.

74

What Anion moves into the stomach lining, and then into the stomach and which anion can move out into the blood?

Cl- into somach. HCO3- (bicarbonate ion).

75

What happens to the bicarbonate the enters the blood in the alkaline tide?

It moves through the blood stream until is is pick up by the ductal cells of the pancreas

76

Which type of iron can be absorbed by the body? What is the role of stomach acid in iron absorbtion?

Fe2+ or ferrous iron. Most dietary iron is Fe8+ the acidicity change that state of the iron

77

What is chymosin? Who has larger quantities of it?

It is an enzyme the denature milk proteins. Babies produce a lot.

78

What is the alimentary canal?

Another name for the whole digestive tube

79

In what ways is pepsin a positive feedback loop?

The pepsin itself can cleave pepsinogen. Creating more pepsin

80

What cause the release of CCK (cholecystokinin)?

Free fatty acids and partially digested proteins

81

What are the functions of CCK (cholecystokinin?

Decrease stomach churning, mantains tightness on lower esophageal sphincter, contract gall bladder, release digestive enzymes increases production of bile, relaxes the sphincter of Oddi

82

What do stretch recepters do in the duodenum?

They slow down stomach activity and increase intestinal activity

83

What are layers of the mucosa?

Epithelial, lamina propria, muscularis mucosa

84

What is the function of GIP (gastric inhibitory protein) and where is it produced?

Works as a back up for secretin and CCK

85

Where are sectritin, cholecystokinin, and gastric inhibitory peptide produced?

In the duodenum

86

Where are sectritin, cholecystokinin, and gastric inhibitory peptide produced?

In the duodenum. More specifically in the crypts.

87

enterogastric reflex

..?

88

What is trypsin inhibitor? Where is produced? What is its function?

It is produced in the pancrease. It is an enzyme that binds to trypsin in the pancreas to deactivate it to stop self digestion of the pancreas

89

Enterokinase

.....

90

What is gluconeogenisis and where does it occur?

turning fats and proteins into glucose. Occurs in the liver

91

Whey does glycogen synthesis occur?

Skeletal muscle and liver

92

Where can fructose be metabolized?

The liver

93

What is the role of the liver made in lipids?

Synthesis cholesterol, HDLs and LDLs. Can synthesize all but two fatty acids

94

What is the liver's role with amino acids?

It dominates and converts ammonia to urea, it converts non essential amino acids from one type to another

95

What are panteth cells?

The secrete lysosomes from the crypts of the small intestine

96

What are the cells that release alkaline mucous in the duadenom?

Brunner's glands

97

What are Peyer's patches?

nodules of Lyphatic tissue MALT's) within the ilium and in the colon

98

What is segmentation?

Contractions of just the circular muscles to mix the chyme with he pancreatic juice and to make contact with the brush border

99

How is fructose absorbed into the enterocytes and then blood?

Though simple diffussion

100

How are glucose, galactose, and amino acids absorbed into the enterocytes and then blood?

In the cells through secondary active simperers with sodium, the simple diffusion into blood.

101

How are dipeptide or tripeptides absorbed? In what part of the intestine are they primarily absorbed? Why in that area?

Secondary active transport with protons. Mostly in the proximal end of the small intestine because it is the most acidic, so it has the highest concentration gradian of protons.

102

Describe the path of lips from the intestine to the lympathic system

Mycelles --> endocyte membrane --> triglycrerideres ---> chlyomicrons >- Exocytosis to lacteals -> lympthatic system

103

How are water soluble vitamins absorbed?

Through passive diffusion into the blood

104

How are fat soluble vitamins absorbed?

same way as lipids, through micelles eventually to lymph tissue

105

What vitamin is unique with is cofactor and receptor mediated endocytosis?

Vitamine B12. Transported with intrinsic factor.