Flashcards in Urinary system Deck (55):
What is the "original" function of the urinary system in aquatic organisms?
Elimination of nitrogenous waste. During protein deamination
What is the function Erythropoetein? In what circumstances will it be released?
EPO increases the production of red blood cells. It is released when the kidney becomes hypoxic
What is the difference in the toxicity of Urea vs. Amonia
What type of catabolism creates uric acid?
nucleic acid catabolism
What do non aquatic animals turn ammonia into and why?
Turn into urea, much less toxic than ammonia so it can be stored.
What could be indicated by high BUN (blood urea nitrogen) levels?
problems with kidney function. But it could also be consumption of large amounts of protein
Which is a more stable diagnostic creatinine or BUN for kidney problems?
What are Renal failure and high urea levels
It crosses the blood brain barrier and causes psychosis
What surrounds the kidney?
A thick adipose pad
What is the outside of the kidney called?
The renal cortex
What is the fluid called when it gets to the minor caylx?
What percent of blood floor is directed to the kidneys under normal circumstances?
What is the first capillary in the real portal system? And what kind of capilary bed is it?
The Glomerulus. It is a fenestrated capillary bed.
What is it called inside the medulla, and what does it have a different name?
Filtrate. Because it can still be altered and return to the blood stream
What is the function of the Loop of Henle?
It allow an osmolar concentration increase up to 4 time blood concentration.
Describe the blood vessel leaving the glomerulus.
What type of cells are present in the proximal convoluted tubule?
stereo cilliate cuboidal epithelium
Where does antidiuretic hormone acts primarily? By what method?
In the collecting duct. By increasing insertion of aqauporins
What are juxtaglomerular cells? What is unique about them. What enzyme do they produce?
Smooth muscles with nervous stretch receptors that act as baroreceptors. They also produce renin.
Describe the gross anatomy drainage path from the medulla of the kidney to the bladder
medullar pyramind --> minor calyx --> major calyx --> renal pelvis --> ureter --> bladder
What does renin do?
Convert angiotensinogen to angiotensin 1
What converts angiotenson 1 to angiotenson 2? Where?
Angiotension converting hormone (ACE) in the lungs
Where does most reabsorption happen? How does it take place?
In the proximal convuluted tubule. There are transport mechanisms for each thing you want to retain.
Where does sectretion take place?
In the distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
What is the function of the fenestrated capillary?
To stop cells and platelets
Collegen and elastin fibers of loose areolar connective tissue filters what?
Stops large proteins
What happens when the transport maximum is exceed?
too much will leave the system
What is the myogenic mechanism?
??? Constricting the afferent arteriole
What is the pressure range at GFR operates properly?
55mm mercury to 180 mm mercury
What does Atrial natriuretic peptide do? What causes its release?
Lower blood volume. High blood volume in the artria
Which cells does the atrial natriuretic peptide act on?
Act on hypothalamus to decrease sense of thirst and inhibit the release of diuretic hormone
What is facultative water absorption vs. obligatory reabsorption
Which kidney sits higher? Which is larger?How are the protected.
The left kidney. Almost always the right kidney. They are peroxide by the 11th and 12th rib.
Where in the kidney can any de-amination occur? Which amino acid(s) undergoes this process
In the PCT. Only glutamine
What kind transport it used in the intercolated cells?
Primary active transport
What are the second capiliary beds and where are they found?
The peritubular capillaries surround the proximal and distal convoluted tables. The Vasa recta surrounds the loop of Henle.
What is Bowman's capsule?
The capsule surrounding the Glomerulus where the filtrat move out of the glomerulus
What is the variability of the concentration of your urine?
The concentration races from 1/4 blood osmolarity to 4 times blood osmolarity.
What are the three major divisions of a nephron?
Renal corpuscle, Renal Tubule, Collecting and Papillary Ducts.
What are the components of the renal tubule?
The proximal convoluted tubule, the loop of Henle and the distal convoluted tubule.
What are the components of the Renal Corpuscle? What part of the Kidney is it in.
The glomerulus and Bowman's Capsule. It is in the renal cortex only.
What are the two type of nephrons. What functions do they have in common? what functions are different?
Cortical Nephrons and Juxtamedullary nephrons. Both filter the blood and help regulate pH. Only the Juxtamedullary Nephrons allow concenration of urine.
What cells wrap around the glomeulus to help it maintain structural integrity given the high pressure from the afferent arteriole?
Which side of the loop of Henle is permeable to water? Which side is permeable to salt?
The descending side permeable to water. The ascending side is permeable to salt. The ascending loop of Henle has the only cells in your body that do no have aquaporins.
Which hormones acts on the distal convoluted Tubule of the kidney?
Almost all of them :). Parathyroid hormone, Calcitonin, Aldosterone, ADH, Angiotensin II.
What is the function of mesangial cell? Describe their typical contraction state and what acts on them?
Primarily to hold loops of glomerulus together. The are typically contracted, but when targeted by Atrial Naturitic Peptide(ANP) they relax and allow more filtration to occur.
What is the Macula Densa?
Cells in at the proximal end of the distal consulted tables that communicate with the articles to effect filtration rates.
What comprise the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
The afferent arteriole, the JG cells, the efferent article and the macula densa.
What do the macula densa do if filtrate concentration is high?
signal JG cells to constrict afferent arierole. Lower the GFR (Glomerluar Flow Rate) will help lower the amount of filtrate.
What does the macula densa do if filtrate concentrations are too low?
If it gets to high it can signal the efferent arteriole to constrict. This creates a back pressure that will increase filtration.
What is the mechanism for filtration in the glomerulas?
Hydrostatic pressure gradient.