Flashcards in Diplomacy, Foreign Policy and Media Deck (13):
What is public diplomacy?
- Relatively new concept and little consensus exists
- “The public, interactive dimension of diplomacy… through which nations foster mutual trust and productive relationships and has become crucial to building a secure global environment”
- a la Public relations
- Transparent means by which a country communicates with publics in other counties to inform/influence national interest and policy goals
- Usually focused on improving the countries image or reputation
What does public diplomacy include?
- Educational exchanges
- Visitor programs
- Language training
- Cultural events/exchanges
- Ratio/TV broadcasting
What is official DFAT strategy?
- Promote trade/investment
- Integration into local region
- Strengthen influence
How is diplomacy soft power?
- Soft power vs actual force
- Hard power nowadays is too costly
- ‘Co-optive’ power
- Influence: make everybody want what you want
- Making country/ideology/culture attractive: creating ability to establish international norms it favours
- Aesthetic Cues: royal family etc
- Public diplomacy is one tool of soft power
- Alongside aid, trade, cultural exchange, multilateral agreements
How does diplomacy as soft power manifest?
* (Trade) Events (dressed up as cultural showcases)
* Digital diplomacy
* ‘Old’ media relations
* International broadcasting
- Cultural diplomacy
What is the point of using diplomacy as soft power?
- If a country/s culture and ideology are attractive, others will more willingly follow
What is digital diplomacy?
- Audiences: foreign governments and domestic population
- Conflict between the two; can’t necessarily maximise both advantages
- Issues are generally either irrelevant to one group or disagreed on
- e.g. tariffs
- Commissioners/diplomats with social media
- Less common
- Direct attacks
What are the effects of digital diplomacy?
- Media effects models
- Constant framing
- Agenda setting/priming
- Uses & gratifications
What are 'old' media relations?
- Straight up public relations
- Press briefings
- Pursuing media outreach
- USA: aggressive in directing US coverage in foreign press
- AUS: softer touch - international media visits etc - softer touch
What defines the media/foreign policy trade off?
* Two Level Games
* CNN Effect
What are two level games?
- e.g. Iraq war? TPP?
- Domestic vs International
- Always a trade off
What are the specifics of CNN effect?
- By covering events (Setting agendas, framing issues and priming viewers) the media becomes three things.
- Not mutually exclusive roles
- Decision making times are compressed
- ‘No response’ becomes impossible
- Urgency as a frame
- Focus on the idea of ‘having to respond'