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Flashcards in Diplomacy, Foreign Policy and Media Deck (13):

What is public diplomacy?

- Relatively new concept and little consensus exists
- “The public, interactive dimension of diplomacy… through which nations foster mutual trust and productive relationships and has become crucial to building a secure global environment”
- a la Public relations
- Transparent means by which a country communicates with publics in other counties to inform/influence national interest and policy goals
- Usually focused on improving the countries image or reputation


What does public diplomacy include?

- Educational exchanges
- Visitor programs
- Language training
- Cultural events/exchanges
- Ratio/TV broadcasting


What is official DFAT strategy?

- Promote trade/investment
- Integration into local region
- Strengthen influence


How is diplomacy soft power?

- Soft power vs actual force
- Hard power nowadays is too costly
- ‘Co-optive’ power
- Influence: make everybody want what you want
- Importance
- Making country/ideology/culture attractive: creating ability to establish international norms it favours
- Aesthetic Cues: royal family etc
- Public diplomacy is one tool of soft power
- Alongside aid, trade, cultural exchange, multilateral agreements


How does diplomacy as soft power manifest?

* (Trade) Events (dressed up as cultural showcases)
* Digital diplomacy
* ‘Old’ media relations
* International broadcasting
- Cultural diplomacy


What is the point of using diplomacy as soft power?

- If a country/s culture and ideology are attractive, others will more willingly follow


What is digital diplomacy?

- Two-level
- Audiences: foreign governments and domestic population
- Conflict between the two; can’t necessarily maximise both advantages
- Issues are generally either irrelevant to one group or disagreed on
- e.g. tariffs
- Conventional
- Commissioners/diplomats with social media
- Less common
- Direct attacks


What are the effects of digital diplomacy?

- Media effects models
- Constant framing
- Encoding/decoding
- Agenda setting/priming
- Uses & gratifications


What are 'old' media relations?

- Straight up public relations
- Press briefings
- Pursuing media outreach
- USA: aggressive in directing US coverage in foreign press
- AUS: softer touch - international media visits etc - softer touch


What defines the media/foreign policy trade off?

* Two Level Games
* CNN Effect


What are two level games?

- e.g. Iraq war? TPP?
- Domestic vs International
- Always a trade off


What are the specifics of CNN effect?

- By covering events (Setting agendas, framing issues and priming viewers) the media becomes three things.
- Not mutually exclusive roles
- Decision making times are compressed
- ‘No response’ becomes impossible
- Urgency as a frame
- Focus on the idea of ‘having to respond'


What things does the media become in CCN effects?

- 1. A policy agenda-setting agent
- Emotional, compelling coverage of atrocities or crises reorder foreign policy priorities

- 2. A impediment to the achievement off desired policy goals
- Emotional - grisly coverage undermined morale - Gov may limit access, attempt to sanitise
- Global, real time media constitute a threat to operational security

- 3. An accelerant to policy decision making
- Media shortens decision making response times
- Television diplomacy
- Live TV may offer potential security-intelligence risks
- Media as force multiplier - method of sending signals