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Flashcards in Disease/Important associations Deck (134):
1

Actinic (solar) keratosis

Precursor to suamous cell carcinoma

2

Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury

Cushing ulcer ( increase intracranial pressure stimulates vagal gastric secretion

3

Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns

Curling ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric mucosa)

4

Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon

Skip lesions ( Chrohn disease)

5

Aneurysm, dissecting

Hypertension

6

Aortic aneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta

Atherosclerosis

7

Aortic aneurysm, arch

tertiary syphilis (syphilitic aortitis) vasa vasorum destruction

8

Aortic aneurysm, ascending

Marfan syndrome ( idiopathic cystic medial degeneration)

9

Atrophy of the mammillary bodies

Wernicke encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, opthalmoplegia and confusion_

10

Autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage)

Sickle cell anemia (hemoglobin S)

11

Bacteria associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and stomach cancer

H. Pylori

12

Bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly)

Streptococcus pneumoniae

13

Bacterial meningitis ( newborns and kids)

Group B streptococcus/E.Coli (newborns), S.pneumoniae? Neisseria meningitidis (kids)

14

Benign Melanocytic nevus

Spitz nevus ( most common in 1st two decades)

15

Bleeding disorder with DpIb deficiency

Bernard-Soulier syndrome ( defect in platelet adhesion to von willebrand factor)

16

Brain tumor (adults)

Supratentorial: metastasis greater than astrocytoma ( including glioblastoma multiforme) greater than meningioma greater than schwannoma

17

Brain tumor (kids)

Infratentorial: medulloblastoma (cerebellum) or supratentorial : crainiopharyngioma

18

Breast cancer

Infiltrating ductal carcinoma

19

Breast mass

Fibrocystic change, carcinoma ( in postmenopausal women)

20

Breast tumor (benign)

Fibroadenoma

21

Cardiac 1 tumor (kids)

Rhabdomyoma, often seen in tuberous sclerosis

22

Cardiac manifestation of lupus

Libman-Sacks endocarditis ( nonbacterial, affecting both sides of mitral valve)

23

Cardiac tumor (adults)

Metastasis, primary myxoma ( 4:1 left to right atrium; "ball and valve")

24

Cerebellar tonsillar herniation

Chiari II malformation

25

Chronic arrhythmia

Atrial fibrillation ( associated with high risk of emboli)

26

Chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune)

Predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)

27

Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina

DES exposure in utero

28

Compression fracture

Osteoporosis ( type I: postmenopausal women; type II: elderly man or woman)

29

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypotension

21-hydroxylase deficiency

30

Congenital cardiac anomaly

VSD

31

Congenital conjuagted hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)

Dubin-Johnson syndrome (inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)

32

Constrictive pericarditis

TB (developing world) ; SLE (developed world)

33

Coronary artery involved in thrombosis

LAD greater than RCA greater than LCA

34

Cretinism

Iodine deficit/hypothyroidsim

35

Cushing syndrome

-Iatrogenic Cushing (from corticosteroid therapy)
-Adrenocortical adenoma (secretes excess cortisol)
-ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma
-Paraneoplastic Cushing (due to ACTH secretion by tumors)

36

Cyanosis ( early; less common)

Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus

37

Cyanosis ( late; more common)

VSD, ASD, PDA

38

Death in CML

Blast crisis

39

Death in SLE

Lupus nephropathy

40

Dementia

Alzheimer disease, multiple infarcts

41

Demyelinating disease in young women

Multiple sclerosis

42

DIC

severe sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burns, trauma, major surgery

43

Dietary deficit

Iron

44

Diverticulum in pharynx

Zenker diverticulum ( diagnosed by barium swallow)

45

Ejection click

Aortic/pulmonic stenosis

46

Esophageal cancer

squamous cell carcinoma (worldwide); adenocarcinoma (U.S)

47

Food poisoning (exotoxin mediated)

S. aureus, B. cereus

48

Glomerulonephritis (adults)

Berger disease (IgA nephropathy)

49

Gynecologic maliganancy

Endometrial carcinoma ( most common in U.S); cervical carcinoma ( most common worldwide)

50

Heart murmur, congenital

Mitral valve prolapse

51

Heart valve in bacterial endocarditis

Mitral greater than aortic ( rheumatic fever, tricuspid ( IV drug abuse)

52

Helminth infection ( U.S.)

Enterobius vermiculars, Ascaris lumbrioides

53

Hematoma-epidural

Rupture of middle meningeal artery ( trauma; lentiform shaped)

54

Hematoma- subdural

Rupture of bridging veins ( crescent shaped_

55

Hemochromatosis

Multiple blood transfusion or hereditart HFE mutation ( can result in CHF, "bronze diabetes" and increase risk of hepatocellular carcinoma)

56

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Cirrhotic liver (associated with hep B and C and with alcholism)

57

Hereditary bleeding disorder

von Willebrand disease

58

Hereditary harmless jaundice

Gilbert syndrome ( benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)

59

HLA-B27

Ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, ulcerative c olitis, psoriatic arthritis

60

HLA-DR3 or DR4

Diabetes mellitus type 1, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE

61

Holosystolic murmur

VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regugitation

62

Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood statis

Virchow triad ( results in venous thrombosis)

63

Hypertension, 2ndary

Renal disease

64

Hypoparathyoidism

Accidental excision during thyroid dectomy

65

Hypopituitarism

Pituitary adenoma (usually benign tumor)

66

Infection 2 to blood transfusion

Hep C

67

Infections in chronic granulomatous disease

Staph aureus, E. Coli, Aspergillus ( catalase +)

68

Intellectual disability

Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome

69

Kidney stones

Calcium = radiopaque
Struviate (ammonium)_radiopaque ( formed by urease + organism such as proteus vulgaris or staph
Uric acid - radiolucent

70

Late cyanotic shunt (uncorrect left to right becomes right to left)

Eisenmenger syndrom ( cause by ASD, CSD, PDA; results in pulmonary hypertension/polycythemia)

71

Liver disease

Alcholic cirrhosis

72

Lysosomal storage disease

Gaucher disease

73

Male cancer

Prostatic carcinoma

74

Malignancy associated with noninfectious fever

Hodgkin lymphoma

75

Malignancy (kids)

ALL, medulloblastoma (cerebellum)

76

Metastases to bone

Prostate,breast greater than lung greater than thyroid

77

Metastases to brain

Lung greater than breast greater that geniturinary greater than melanoma greater than GI

78

Metastases to liver

Collon way greater than stomach, pancreas

79

Mitochondrial inheritance

Disease occurs in both males and females, inherited through females only

80

Mitral valve stenosis

Rheumatic heart disease

81

Mixed (UMN and LMN) motor neuron disease

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

82

Myocarditis

Coxsackie B

83

Nephrotic syndrome (adults)

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

84

Nephrotic syndrome (kids)

Minimal change disease

85

Neuron migration failure

Kallmann syndrome (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia)

86

Nosocomial pneumonia

Klebsiella, E.coli, pseudomonas aeurginosa

87

Obstruction of male urinary tract

BPH

88

Opening snap

Mitral stenosis

89

Opportunistic infection in AIDS

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia

90

Osteomyelitis

S. Aureus

91

Osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease

Salmonella

92

Osteomyelitis with IV drug use

Pseudomonas, S. Aureus

93

Ovarian metastasis from gastric carcinoma or breast cancer

Krukenberg tumor (mucin-secreting signet-ring cells)

94

Ovarian tumor (benign, bilateral)

Serous cystadenoma

95

Ovarian tumor (malignant)

Serous cystadenomcarcinoma

96

Pancreatitis (acute)

Gallsones, alcohol

97

Pancreatitis (chronic)

Alcohol (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)

98

Patients with ALL/CLL/AML/CML

ALL: child, CLL: Adult > 60, AML: adult - 65, CML: adult 30-60

99

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae

100

Philadelphia chromosome t (9:22) (bcr-abl)

CML ( may sometimes be associated with ALL.AML)

101

Pituitary tumor

Prolactinoma, somatotropic "acidophilic"adenoma

102

primary amenorrhea

Turner syndrome (45 XO)

103

primary bone tumor (adults)

Multople myeloma

104

primary hyperaldosteronism

Adenoma of adrenal cortex

105

primary hyperparathyroidism

Adenomas, Hyperplasia, carcinoma

106

primary liver cancer

Hepatocellular carcinoma ( chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, a1-antitrypsin deficiency)

107

Pulmonary hypertension

COPD

108

Recurrent inflammation.thrombosis of small//medium vessels in extremities

Beurger disease (strongly associated with tobacco)

109

Renal tumor

Renal cell carcinoma:associated with von hippel-lindau and cigarette smoke; paraneoplastic syndromes (EPO, renin, PTH, ACTH)

110

Right heart failure due to pulmonary cause

Cor pulmonale

111

S3 (protodiastolic gallop

Increased ventricular filling ( left to right shunt, mitral regurgiation, LV failure (CHF)

112

S4 (presystolic gallop)

Stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)

113

2ndary hyperparathyroidism

Hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease

114

Sexually transmitted disease

Chylamydia (usually coinfected with gonorrhea)

115

SIADH

Small cell carcinoma of the lung

116

Site of diverticula

Sigmoid colon

117

Sites of atherosclerois

Abdominal aorta> coronary artery > popliteal artery > carotid artery

118

Stomach cancer

Adenocarcinoma

119

Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma of duodenum or pancrease)

120

t(14;18)

Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 actvation)

121

t(8;14)

Burkitt lymphoma (c-myc activation)

122

t(9;22)

Philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl fusion)

123

Temporal arteritis

Risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of opthalmic artery; polymyalgia rheumatica

124

Testicular tumor

Seminoma (malignant, radiosensitive)

125

Thyroid cancer

Papillary carcinoma

126

Tumor in women

Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent, not precancerous)

127

Tumor of infancy

Hemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously by childhood)

128

Tumor of adrenal medulla (adults)

Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)

129

Tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids)

Neuroblastoma (malignant)

130

Type of Hodgkin

Nodular sclerosis (vs. Mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominancy, lymphocytic depletion)

131

type of non-hodgkin

Diffuse large cell

132

UTI

E. coli, Staph saprophyticus (young women)

133

Viral encephalitis affecting temporal lobe

HSV-1

134

Vitamin deficiency (U.S)

Folate (pregnant women are at high risk; body store only 3 to 4 month supply; prevents neural tube defects)