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Flashcards in Diseases of Airways Deck (23):
1

Obstructive airway diseases M/C affect which pop'n?

infants and very young

2

List 5 causes of upper airway obstruction.

FFIRE
1. Foreign body aspiration
2. Faulty placement of endotracheal tube
3. Infection
4. Retropharyngeal hemorrhage
5. Edema

3

What is saber sheath trachea and which condition is it most strongly associated with?

Trachea is flattened in the left to right dimension (sagittal diameter is larger) in the INTRATHORACIC region.

lateral film:frontal film = 1.5x larger

Associated with COPD

4

How often is the respiratory tract involved in relapsing polychondritis?

approx. 50% of patients (life threatening causing airway obstruction)

5

What is the cause for permanent airway stenosis in relapsing polychondritis?

Inflammatory episodes cause the cartilages to dissolve and be replaced by fibrotic tissue.

6

Which of the following is false about asthma?
a. Increase vital capacity
b. Increased airway resistance
c. Increased total lung capacity
d. Increased residual volume

a. Increase vital capacity

Vital capacity = maximum amount of air a person can expel (This is decreased in asthma b/c air is trapped d/t mucus plugs.)

7

What are the radiographic signs of asthma?

- hyperinflation
- hemidiaphragms slightly less domed
- bronchial wall thickening

8

What is the most important etiologic factor in emphysema?

cigarette smoking

9

What is the pathogenesis of emphysema?

Smoke activates macrophages --> neutrophils --> release elastase --> cleaves collagen and elastase in bronchi.
Tobacco smoke also interferes with function of alpha-1-antitrypsin which protects the elastin in lung.

10

What are the 3 types of emphysema?

a) centrilobular
b) panlobular
c) paraseptal

11

What is vanishing lung?

Large, progressive, upper lobe bullae in young men.

12

Which location does centrilobular emphysema M/C affect and what is their common presentation?

Upper and lower lung zones.

Present with bullae (>1cm)

13

Which type of emphysema is often associated with spontaneous pneumothorax?

Paraseptal (b/c it involves the alveolar ducts and sacs in the lung periphery)

14

Which type of emphysema is classically associated with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency?

Panlobular

15

Which type of emphysema is most widespread and severe?

Panlobular

16

What is the most reliable sign of emphysema?

Hyperinflation

17

What are some radiographic signs for emphysema?

- hyperinflation
- low diaphragm
- flat diaphragm
- increased retrosternal airspace

18

What does the presence of an air-fluid level in a bulla indicate?

Infection, hemorrhage or neoplasm of the bulla

19

What is James-Swyer-MCleod syndrome?

Unilateral hyperlucent, small lung.
Form of obliterative bronchiolitis d/t a viral insult to the developing lung.

20

What is the triad of Kartagener syndrome and what subset of disease does it belong to?

a. situs inversus
b. chronic sinusitis
c. bronchiectasis

Subset to primary ciliary dyskinesia (infertility in males).

21

What is the triad associated with yellow nail syndrome?

a. yellow nails
b. lymphedema
c. pleural effusions

22

What are the main clinical manifestations of cystic fibrosis?

- abnormal sweat electrolytes
- sinus and pulmonary disease
- exocrine pancreatic insufficiency
- male infertility

23

What are the radiographic findings of cystic fibrosis?

- bronchial wall thickening & bronchiectasis
- pulmonary hyperinflation
- fingered glove appearance