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Flashcards in Neoplasms Deck (38):
1

Of the 3 tumors, which one has the worst prognosis: squamous cell, adenocarcinoma, large cell carcinoma?

Large cell carcinoma

2

Which of the malignant tumors is associated with cigarette smoking?

a) Squamous cell carcinoma
b) Large cell carcinoma
c) Small/Oat cell carcinoma
d) Atypical carcinoid

3

Where does squamous cell carcinoma M/C like to occur?

Centrally (within the brochi) and proximal

4

What are some of the clinical features of a Pancoast tumor?

- pain or atrophy of muscles of ipsilateral upper extremity (involvement of lower brachial plexus)
- Horner syndrome (involvement of sympathetic chain)

5

Which pulmonary tumor has the highest prevalence for central necrosis & cavitation?

Squamous cell carcinoma

6

What is the most common cause of a Pancoast tumor?

Squamous cell carcinoma

7

Which tumor contains neurosecretory granules?

small cell carcinoma, carcinoid tumors (typical & atypical), large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma

8

What is the M/C seen syndrome associated with small cell carcinoma?

Cushing's syndrome -- inappropriate secretion of ADH

9

What is the M/C/C of superior vena cava obstruction?

Small cell carcinoma

10

Why do small cell carcinomas have poor prognosis?

Because grow rapidly & metastasize early!

11

Small cell carcinomas typically grow in which location?

Centrally (within bronchi) and proximal (main stem or lobar)

12

Adenocarcinomas occur in which pop'n?

Women & non-smokers (but hx of tobacco use)

13

Where does adenocarcinomas M/C occur?

upper lobes & peripherally

14

What is a subtype of adenocarcinoma and what unique feature is present about this condition?

Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC)

Lepidic Growth = grows along the bronchioloar & alveolar walls without invasion, distortion or destruction of these structures.

15

What is the average size that 60% of large cell carcinomas are greater than?

4cm

16

True or false: large cell carcinomas are seen closer to the mediastinum?

False. They are seen peripherally (segmental or subsegmental).

17

Where is adenosquamous carcinoma seen and what is its prognosis?

Seen in periphery and poor prognosis (metastasizes early).

18

Where do carcinoid tumors of the lung arise from?

Neuroendocrine cells within the airways.

19

What is carcinoid syndrome and when does it occur?

- right heart failure
- chronic diarrhea
- respiratory distress
- flushing & cyanosis of skin

Occurs when there is hepatic metastatic disease.

20

Which of the two subtypes of carcinoid tumor is associated with smoking?

Atypical carcinoid

21

Which of the two subtypes of carcinoid tumor is more aggressive?

Atypical carcinoid (typical carcinoid is the best differentiated neuroectodermal carcinoma)

22

Which of the two subtypes of carcinoid tumor is associated with higher presence of calcification?

Typical carcinoid (40%)

23

What is a radiographic sign for the presentation for a typical carcinoid tumor?

Iceberg tumor = presence of small intraluminal & large extraluminal soft tissue component.

24

Are malignant or benign tumors M/C for the trachea?

Malignant (80%)

25

What is M/C benign neoplasm of the tracheobronchial glands in kids?

squamous papillomas

26

What is the 2nd M/C benign tumor of the trachea?

Hemangiomas

27

What is the M/C malignant tumor of the trachea?

Invasion from an adjacent neoplasm (notably lung).

28

What are the top 3 M/C primary malignant tracheal tumors?

a) Adenoid cystic carcinoma (M/C bronchial gland tumor)
b) Squamous cell carcinoma
c) Mucoepidermoid tumor

29

True or false: adenoid cystic carcinoma is not associated with smoking.

True. ACC is not associated with smoking (unlike squamous cell).

30

What is the most frequently affected area in Hodgkin's lymphoma on initial presentation and what is the 2nd M/C area?

Cervical nodes followed by groin nodes.

31

In 30% of cases, what gland is involved in Hodgkin's lymphoma?

Thymus

32

Metastasis to the lungs usually occurs via which route?

Hematogenous (veins >> arteries)
Especially inferior or superior vena cava.

33

What is Carney's triad?

a) pulmonary chondromas
b) gastric epithelioid leiomyosarcoma (GIST)
c) extra-adrenal paraganglioma (pheochromocytoma)

34

Pulmonary hamaratoms are more commonly seen where in location?

Periphery

35

Hamartomas present with what type of calcification pattern?

popcorn calcification

36

What is the M/C benign pleural neoplasm?

Fibroma

37

Most intrathoracic neurofibromas arise from which structure(s)?

Intercostal nerves OR sympathic nerves

38

What is Reckling-Hausen's disease?

a) kyphoscoliosis
b) scalloped vertebrae
c) lateral meningocele