Diseases of the Spine Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Diseases of the Spine Deck (22):
1

Herniated disc

A herniated disc occurs when one of the small, spongy discs that cushion the vertebrae bulges or breaks open. This condition, also known as a slipped or ruptured disc, can affect any part of the spine, but is most common in the lower back.

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Treatments for a herniated disc include:

Medication
Physical therapy
Artificial disc replacement
Spinal fusion
Laminaplasty
Microendoscopic discectomy
Epidural steroid blocks
Selective nerve root blocks/transforaminal epidural steroid blocks

3

Compression fracture

A compression fracture is a broken vertebra in the spine. It usually occurs due to severe trauma, but is also the result of cancer or osteoporosis. Compression fractures are most common in the vertebrae of the lower back.

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The treatment for a compression fracture is

Kyphoplasty

5

Degenerative disc disease

Degenerative disc disease refers to the normal breakdown of spinal discs as we age. A sudden injury leading to a herniated disc may also begin the degeneration process. The condition causes back or neck pain, and can lead to osteoarthritis or spinal stenosis.

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Treatments for degenerative disc disease include:

Medication
Physical Therapy
Artificial disc replacement
Spinal fusion
Epidural injections
Epidural steroid blocks
Selective nerve root blocks/transforaminal epidural steroid blocks

7

Myelopathy

Myelopathy is the gradual loss of nerve function caused by disorders of the spine. The condition commonly results from spinal injury or spinal stenosis, a progressive narrowing of the spinal canal.

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Myelopathy treatments include:

Medication
Physical therapy
Laminectomy
Spinal fusion

9

Kyphosis

Kyphosis is a progressive disorder that causes curvature of the thoracic spine in children and adults. It is most often the result of developmental problems, trauma, degenerative diseases (such as arthritis) or osteoporosis with compression fractures.

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Treatments for kyphosis include:

Physical therapy
Spinal fusion

11

Scoliosis

Scoliosis is a lateral curvature of the spine. Instead of the gentle inward and outward curves of a normal spine, scoliosis produces an “S” or “C” shape. The condition is primarily congenital, but also results from traumatic injury or osteoporosis.

12

Scoliosis treatments include:

Physical therapy
Spinal fusion
Facet blocks

13

Sciatica

Sciatica is pain, tingling or numbness caused by irritation of the sciatic nerve in the lower back. It can result from a herniated disc pressing against the nerve roots, spinal stenosis, arthritis or an injury-induced pinched nerve.

14

Treatments for sciatica include:

Medication
Physical therapy
Laminectomy
Spinal fusion
Epidural steroid blocks
Selective nerve root blocks/transforaminal epidural steroid blocks
Sympathetic blocks

15

Spinal stenosis

Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal, which places pressure on the spinal cord. While the condition can affect any part of the spine, it is most common in the lumbar and cervical regions. Some people are born with stenosis; others develop it as they age.

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Treatments for spinal stenosis include:

Medication
Physical therapy
Laminaplasty
Laminectomy
Spinal fusion
Interspinous/interlaminar implant
Epidural steroid blocks
Selective nerve root blocks/transforaminal epidural steroid blocks

17

Spondylolisthesis

Spondylolisthesis is a forward slip of one vertebra in the spinal column and usually occurs in the lumbar region. Some people are born with a defective vertebra; in others, trauma, a stress fracture, infection or disease may cause the problem. The condition is on the rise among children and adolescents who are active in athletics.

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Spondylolisthesis treatments include:

Physical therapy
Spinal fusion
Epidural steroid blocks
Selective nerve root blocks/transforaminal epidural steroid blocks

19

Radiculopathy

Radiculopathy is a disease of the spinal nerve roots and spinal nerves. Cervical radiculopathy affects the nerve roots near the neck and radiates through the arms and hands. Lumbar radiculopathy causes nerve irritation in the lower back that radiates through the legs and feet. Wear and tear, degeneration, herniated discs and traumatic injury are the primary causes.

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Treatments for radiculopathy include:

Physical therapy
Epidural steroid blocks
Selective nerve root blocks/transforaminal epidural steroid blocks

21

Low back pain

Low back pain is by far the most common spinal complaint among adults in the United States. It affects the back anywhere below the ribs and above the legs. Causes include overuse, strain, injury, compression fracture, aging, and diseases such as arthritis and osteoporosis.

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Treatments for low back pain vary according to severity and include:

Medication
Physical therapy
Laminectomy
Spinal fusion
Epidural steroid blocks
Selective nerve root blocks/transforaminal epidural steroid blocks
Facet blocks