Flashcards in Vocabulary Deck (76):
Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion.
Anterior lumbar interbody fusion
The outer layer of the intervertebral disc, which is located between the vertebral bodies. The annulus is made of collagen fibers.
A term which describes the front of an object.
Joints located in the posterior arch of the vertebral column. Also known as Facet Joints.
Bone which is taken usually from the patient's pelvis in order to fuse the spine.
Bone morphogenetic protein. A copy of a protein which is normally made in the body. This protein causes bone formation and fusion.
A bone graft which is placed between two vertebral bodies to give structural support and eventually cause a bone fusion.
Occurs commonly in the spine due to the natural aging process (osteoarthritis). Bone spurs can occasionally push on nerves causing arm and leg pain.
Pieces of bone which are placed between the vertebrae that eventually grow together forming a spinal fusion.
A common pattern seen in the vertebral bodies when a traumatic episode occurs and causes the bone to fracture (break).
A cylindrical metal device often made of titanium which can be placed between two vertebral bodies to provide structural support.
A process which occurs during aging where normal tissues become harder due to increased calcium content.
A group of spinal nerve roots located below the spinal cord in the vertebral canal
Refers to the neck. There are seven cervical vertebrae in the neck
The lowest tip of the spine, also known as the tailbone.
A term which describes the removal of the vertebral body, frequently performed to remove pressure off the spinal cord.
Removal of either bone, disc or calcified ligaments, which is pushing on nerves.
Degenerative Disc Disease
Changes which occur in the intervertebral disc during the normal aging process, which makes the disc more brittle.
A small disc herniation which can irritate a nerve, but usually does not require surgery.
The cushion between each of the vertebral bodies.
A larger disc herniation which frequently pushes on nerves in the arms and legs causing pain.
Occurs when a portion of the cushion between the vertebral bodies (intervertebral disc) is no longer in its normal position. The disc usually ruptures posteriorly and pushes on nerves to the arms and legs.
Removal of a portion of the disc.
An injection of contrast material into the central region of the disc. This is often followed by an x-ray or CT scan.
The membrane that forms the outer covering of the central nervous system.
Located on or outside of the dura mater.
The joint on the back of the spine between two adjacent vertebrae.
The space between vertebrae where nerve roots exit to travel down the arms or legs.
Occurs when bone graft is placed between two vertebrae and the bones grow together. After fusion is complete, there is no motion between these 2 vertebral bodies.
A benign blood-filled cyst which occurs in the vertebral bodies.
The placement of metal, screws, plates and rods in the spine.
The space between two spinal bones.
The normal forward curve which occurs in the thoracic spine.
The bone which is located in the posterior portion of the vertebrae.
The removal of the lamina, frequently done to relieve pressure on the nerves (spinal stenosis).
A removal of a small portion of the lamina, frequently done to remove a portion of the disc.
The normal backward curve which occurs in the cervical and lumbar region.
The lowest portion of the spine. There are five lumbar vertebrae in the low back.
The removal of a ruptured disc through a small incision with the aid of a microscope.
The injection of contrast material into the subarachnoid space. This is often followed by an x-ray or CT scan.
Refers to abnormal cells which are frequently due to tumors or cancer.
The inner portion of the intervertebral disc.
Osteogenic Protein 1. This bone morphogenetic protein causes bone formation and fusion.
Decreased bone density which occurs frequently in elderly females.
A normal aging process where spurs develop in the spine. The discs lose water content and become narrowed.
An infection of bone.
Removal of a small portion of the disc, frequently the portion which is ruptured.
Material for MR imaging, also known as Gadolinium or Gad. It is used to distinguish between a disc protrusion and scarring.
The portion of the vertebrae which connects the lamina to the vertebral body. Frequent site of screw placement.
Flat metal object usually made of titanium with holes for screws to be used in the front of the spine.
Posterior lumbar interbody fusion. A posterior anatomical description which refers to the back of an object.
The base of the lumbar spine which connects the spine to the pelvis.
Irritation of the sciatic nerve which is the largest nerve in the body and travels down the legs.
A curvature of the spine which occurs most frequently in young adolescent females.
Usually made of titanium and is placed in either the front or back of the spine.
Sequestered Disc Fragment
Occurs when a portion of the disc breaks off completely and pushes on the nerves to the arms or legs.
A congenital problem which occurs due to incomplete formation of the back of the spine.
The clear fluid which surrounds the spinal cord and nerves in the spine.
The connection between the brain stem and the nerves which allows motion and sensation.
The back of the spine bones; this can be felt through the skin.
A forward slippage of one vertebra on the other.
A stress fracture of the back of the spine. Occurs in the portion of the lamina known as the "pars interarticularis."
Degenerative changes of a section of the vertebra.
Decreased space available for the nerves, usually due to arthritis.
The presence of cavities in the spinal cord.
A tubular, fluid-filled cavity in the spinal cord.
A cerebrospinal-fluid-filled dilation, or sac, in a spinal nerve root sheath that can cause symptoms due to nerve root compression.
Located in the spinal canal; it contains the cauda equina, cerebrospinal fluid and spinal cord.
The middle portion of the spine; there are 12 thoracic vertebrae.
Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.
The "wings" of the spine which are located posteriorly.
An abnormal growth of tissue which causes bone destruction.
Usually refers to a fusion with no screws, rods or plates.