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Spine > Vocabulary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vocabulary Deck (76):
1

ACDF

Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion.

2

ALIF

Anterior lumbar interbody fusion

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Annulus

The outer layer of the intervertebral disc, which is located between the vertebral bodies. The annulus is made of collagen fibers.

4

Anterior

A term which describes the front of an object.

5

Apophyseal Joints

Joints located in the posterior arch of the vertebral column. Also known as Facet Joints.

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Autograft

Bone which is taken usually from the patient's pelvis in order to fuse the spine.

7

BMP

Bone morphogenetic protein. A copy of a protein which is normally made in the body. This protein causes bone formation and fusion.

8

Bone Strut

A bone graft which is placed between two vertebral bodies to give structural support and eventually cause a bone fusion.

9

Bone Spurs

Occurs commonly in the spine due to the natural aging process (osteoarthritis). Bone spurs can occasionally push on nerves causing arm and leg pain.

10

Bone Graft

Pieces of bone which are placed between the vertebrae that eventually grow together forming a spinal fusion.

11

Burst Fracture

A common pattern seen in the vertebral bodies when a traumatic episode occurs and causes the bone to fracture (break).

12

Cage

A cylindrical metal device often made of titanium which can be placed between two vertebral bodies to provide structural support.

13

Calcification

A process which occurs during aging where normal tissues become harder due to increased calcium content.

14

Cauda Equina

A group of spinal nerve roots located below the spinal cord in the vertebral canal

15

Cervical

Refers to the neck. There are seven cervical vertebrae in the neck

16

Coccygeal

The lowest tip of the spine, also known as the tailbone.

17

Corpectomy

A term which describes the removal of the vertebral body, frequently performed to remove pressure off the spinal cord.

18

Decompression

Removal of either bone, disc or calcified ligaments, which is pushing on nerves.

19

Degenerative Disc Disease

Changes which occur in the intervertebral disc during the normal aging process, which makes the disc more brittle.

20

Disc Bulge

A small disc herniation which can irritate a nerve, but usually does not require surgery.

21

Disc

The cushion between each of the vertebral bodies.

22

Disc Protrusion

A larger disc herniation which frequently pushes on nerves in the arms and legs causing pain.

23

Disc Herniation

Occurs when a portion of the cushion between the vertebral bodies (intervertebral disc) is no longer in its normal position. The disc usually ruptures posteriorly and pushes on nerves to the arms and legs.

24

Discectomy

Removal of a portion of the disc.

25

Discography

An injection of contrast material into the central region of the disc. This is often followed by an x-ray or CT scan.

26

Dura Matter

The membrane that forms the outer covering of the central nervous system.

27

Epidural

Located on or outside of the dura mater.

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Facet Joint

The joint on the back of the spine between two adjacent vertebrae.

29

Foramina

The space between vertebrae where nerve roots exit to travel down the arms or legs.

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Fusion

Occurs when bone graft is placed between two vertebrae and the bones grow together. After fusion is complete, there is no motion between these 2 vertebral bodies.

31

Hemangioma

A benign blood-filled cyst which occurs in the vertebral bodies.

32

Instrumented

The placement of metal, screws, plates and rods in the spine.

33

Intervertebral

The space between two spinal bones.

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Kyphosis

The normal forward curve which occurs in the thoracic spine.

35

Lamina

The bone which is located in the posterior portion of the vertebrae.

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Laminectomy

The removal of the lamina, frequently done to relieve pressure on the nerves (spinal stenosis).

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Laminotomy

A removal of a small portion of the lamina, frequently done to remove a portion of the disc.

38

Lordosis

The normal backward curve which occurs in the cervical and lumbar region.

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Lumbar

The lowest portion of the spine. There are five lumbar vertebrae in the low back.

40

Microdiscectomy

The removal of a ruptured disc through a small incision with the aid of a microscope.

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Myelography

The injection of contrast material into the subarachnoid space. This is often followed by an x-ray or CT scan.

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Neoplasia

Refers to abnormal cells which are frequently due to tumors or cancer.

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Nucleus

The inner portion of the intervertebral disc.

44

OP-1

Osteogenic Protein 1. This bone morphogenetic protein causes bone formation and fusion.

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Osteoporosis

Decreased bone density which occurs frequently in elderly females.

46

Osteoarthritis

A normal aging process where spurs develop in the spine. The discs lose water content and become narrowed.

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Osteomyelitis

An infection of bone.

48

Partial Discectomy

Removal of a small portion of the disc, frequently the portion which is ruptured.

49

Paramagnetic Contrast

Material for MR imaging, also known as Gadolinium or Gad. It is used to distinguish between a disc protrusion and scarring.

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Pedicle

The portion of the vertebrae which connects the lamina to the vertebral body. Frequent site of screw placement.

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Plate

Flat metal object usually made of titanium with holes for screws to be used in the front of the spine.

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PLIF

Posterior lumbar interbody fusion. A posterior anatomical description which refers to the back of an object.

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Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rod

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Sacral

The base of the lumbar spine which connects the spine to the pelvis.

55

Sciatica

Irritation of the sciatic nerve which is the largest nerve in the body and travels down the legs.

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Scoliosis

A curvature of the spine which occurs most frequently in young adolescent females.

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Screw

Usually made of titanium and is placed in either the front or back of the spine.

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Sequestered Disc Fragment

Occurs when a portion of the disc breaks off completely and pushes on the nerves to the arms or legs.

59

Spina Bifida

A congenital problem which occurs due to incomplete formation of the back of the spine.

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Spinal Fluid

The clear fluid which surrounds the spinal cord and nerves in the spine.

61

Spinal Cord

The connection between the brain stem and the nerves which allows motion and sensation.

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Spinous Process

The back of the spine bones; this can be felt through the skin.

63

Spondylolisthesis

A forward slippage of one vertebra on the other.

64

Spondylolysis

A stress fracture of the back of the spine. Occurs in the portion of the lamina known as the "pars interarticularis."

65

Spondylosis

Degenerative changes of a section of the vertebra.

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Stenosis

Decreased space available for the nerves, usually due to arthritis.

67

Syringomyelia

The presence of cavities in the spinal cord.

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Syrinx

A tubular, fluid-filled cavity in the spinal cord.

69

Tarlov Cyst

A cerebrospinal-fluid-filled dilation, or sac, in a spinal nerve root sheath that can cause symptoms due to nerve root compression.

70

Thecal Sac

Located in the spinal canal; it contains the cauda equina, cerebrospinal fluid and spinal cord.

71

Thoracic

The middle portion of the spine; there are 12 thoracic vertebrae.

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TLIF

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

73

Transverse Process

The "wings" of the spine which are located posteriorly.

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Tumors

An abnormal growth of tissue which causes bone destruction.

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Uninstrumented

Usually refers to a fusion with no screws, rods or plates.

76

Vertebra

A spinal bone.