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Flashcards in Diuretics Deck (35):
1

in which part of the nephron do carbonic anhydrase inhibitors work?

the PCT

2

for what illnesses would you use a carbonic anydrase inhibitor?

glaucoma, mountain sickness

3

what is an example of a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor?

acetazolamide

4

dont use acetazolamide in people with _____

metabolic acidosis

5

in which part of the nephron does Furosemide work?

TAL

6

what type of diuretic is furosemide?

loop

7

what are some side effects of furosemide?

hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia

8

furosemide can also treat ___

hypercalcemia

9

in which part of the nephron do thizaides work?

DCT

10

thiazides should be used in people with ____

HTN or mild heart failure

11

what are some side effects of thiazides?

hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypercalcemia

12

dont give thiazides or loops to people who have ____ allergies

sulfonamide

13

which type of thiazide has a longer duration?

chlorthalidone - longer half life

14

thiazides can decrease the effectiveness of what drugs?

antidiabetics

15

thiazides can increase the effectiveness of ____

Ace-I

16

what substances can increase the efficacy of HCTZ?

alchool, beta 2 agonists, corticosteroids

17

thiazides wont work on a GFR ____

<30

18

what drugs work in the cortical collecting tubule?

K sparing

19

what is the MOA for K sparing drugs?

blocks the ENAC channel resulting in cessation of K secretion

20

what is a side effect of K sparing drugs?

hyperkalemia

21

what are major contraindications for K sparing drugs?

renal failure, anyone on an ACE-I, or anyone with a GFR <10

22

K sparing drugs can decrease the efficacy of ______

cardiac glycosides

23

what drugs can be used to treat female acne/hirsutism?

aldosterone antagonists - spironalactone

24

what is the MOA of thiazides?

blocks reabsorption of Na and Cl causing decrease in PVR and smooth muscle relaxation

25

what are examples of ADH antagonists?

conivaptan, tolvaptan, demeclocycline

26

ADH antagonists can be use in what diseases?

SIADH, hyponatremia

27

what is the MOA of ADH antagonists?

they stop ADH at the V1/V2 receptors

28

what are 2 ADH agonists?

desmopression, vasopression

29

what is the MOA of ADH agonists?

activate V1/V2 receptors and the insertion of aquaporin channels.

30

what disease would you use ADH agonists in?

pituitary diabetes insipidus

31

What is a major side effect for ADH agonists?

hyponatremia - water overload diluting your sodium levels, hypertension

32

describe the effect that ADH and desopressin have on urine?

reduce urine content and increase concentration

33

What is an example of an osmotic diuretic?

mannitol

34

what diseases would you use mannitol in?

solute overload in rhabdo, brain edema with glaucoma

35

what is a major side effect of osmotic diuretics

hyponatremia followed by hypernatremia