Flashcards in Diverse places Deck (35):
The UK's population is very unevenly distributed and changes at different rates.
Significant difference along the rural-urban continuum:
Remote rural = population decline.
Inner city = population decline.
Suburban, rural-urban fringe and accessible rural areas have seen population growth.
Population differences can be explained by:
Good transport leads to higher populations.
Access matters for working people but less so for retired people, so they tend to live in rural areas.
After 1880, many middle class people moved out of the city centre into the suburbs.
Since 1947, many cities have been ringed by a green belt which has encouraged many to live in rural areas.
Population, Anglesey v Southwark
Anglesey has an ageing population.
Southwark's population is dominated by people 20-40.
In 2014, there were 813 deaths in Anglesey but only615 births.
In Southwark, there were 4600 births and only 1300 deaths.
Inner city Southwark attracted 5500 extra international migrants in 2014.
Rural Anglesy only attracted 60 extra international migrants.
Anglesey's poluation declined by 0.3% in 2014, whereas Southwark's grew up 2.5%.
Some cities have more males than females because some industries are dominated by men e.g. offshore oil industry in Aberdeen.
Rural areas often have more single men than single women.
Inner city areas have more male international migrants than female.
Coastal retirement locations tend to have more females than males.
Southwark =54.3% white British.
Anglesey = 98.3% white British.
Accessible cities are more culturally diverse because of the availability of employment.
In urban areas, ethnic groups sometimes exhibit clustering .
In almost all areas, segregation takes place.
Clustering in Southwark:
Expensive riverside property in Surrey docs has been brought up by wealthy European immigrants.
The wealthy British population tend to live in the Southern Wards, away form crowded riverside.
Lower income ethnic groups may be concentrated in areas with a large amount of council housing.
Internal explanation of ethnic clustering
New immigrants tend to live close to existing people.
Ethnically specific services encourage others to live nearby.
Safety in numbers.
External explanations of ethnic clustering
Estate agents may help concentrate groups in particular areas.
An existing population may leave an area if a new ethnic groups begins to move in.
Prejudice in the job market prevents some ethnic groups from gaining high enough incomes to live in some areas.
Southwark is changing...
Each year about 13% of its resident population changes.
Cultural diversity is growing rapidly (63% white British in 2001, to 54% in 2011.)
Most of Southwark's population is 20-40, so young, dynamic workers.
Population growth is driven by high fertility rates.
Forces shaping Anglesey
Globalisation allows Anglesy's seafood industry to access global markets, but in 2009 this closed down due to falling global demands.
Limited connections to the rest of Wales, but there is a tourism industry.
As a location for economic activity it is remote and peripheral.
It has a strong Welsh identity, with 57% of people speaking Welsh (highest in Wales.)
Forces shaping Southwark
Global events, such as 2012 Olympics, helped to raise the profile of London as a world city.
Benefits from being within the EU's largest city and some global brands are located there.
Cultural icons e.g Tate and Shakespeare's art globe, have given it a high cultural profile.
All places have an image which they project and this shapes people's perceptions of the place, as either positive or negative.
Old people might find the peace of seclusion of Anglesy very appealing but be horrified by the congestion and noise of Southwark. Young people may perceive Anglesy as boring and isolated, whereas they see Southwark as teeming with social and economic opportunities.
Young people may want to leave places with bad images.
People are attracted to places with positive images.
More likely to be job opportunities in places with attractive images.
Perceptions of urban places
In Victorian London, the city was viewed as dangerous, threatening and places to avoid. This perception was caused by:
Pollution from factories.
Wealthy Victorians responded to this by moving into the Suburbs and planning new models of cities e.g Ebenezer Howard's garden cities of Welwyn.
Today, these areas are perceived as attractive places because of the range of economic activities and the variety of social and leisure activities found there.
Some urban places have a reputations.
Liverpool is an example:
Riots in Toxteth area in 1981.
1982 TV series Boys from Blackstuff showed the impact of deindustrialisation and unemployment.
In the 1980s/90s, the city had a reputation for gang crime linked to drugs and firearms.
Large areas of derelict land, run down housing and high levels of poverty added to Liverpool's poor image.
Liverpool was European Capital of culture in 2008.
The 2013, peace index saw Liverpool as outside the top 20 least peaceful cities in England.
2016 Happiness survey saw Liverpool's residents are the second least happy in the country.
Perceptions of rural places
Rural idyll. This is based on:
Rural areas having picturesque landscapes.
Old, cottage style housing with flower gardens.
Relaxed pace of live, free from stress.
Strong sense of community.
Places that are free of crime.
Places that have a long history and historic buildings.
TV series like Emmerdale are set in the attractive countryside.
Life in rural areas
Energy- many homes aren't connect to gas pipelines so have expensive oil fired boilers.
Services- limited in services and are often more expensive.
Housing- houses are old with high maintenance costs and high heating costs.
Transport- infrequent, expensive busses, high petrol/ diesel costs.
Population- ageing populations mean limited social opportunities for children and young people and a sense of isolation.
Tourism- swamped by tourists in the summer but deserted in winter.
Different types of rural areas
Remote rural - places to visit but very small number of people move their to retire or to get away from it all.
Accessible rural -popular retirement location, balancing the desire for rural peace with access to services.
Commuter villages- within a one hour drive of major cities. Popular with young families who are counter urbanising, and who commute to work.
North-South drift. Internal migrants tend to be:
Young, relatively skilled/ educated and seeking employment in a more prosperous area.
Since 2002, about 2.7 million people moved from one local authority to another.
North grows by 0.5% a year or less, while London grows at an annual rate of 1.8%.
This has resulted in significant differences in average age with London having the youngest (34) and Scotland having an average age of 40-41.
South West has the highest average age of 42.9 but also has a positive net internal migration. Because it is a very popular retirement location.
Second/ third generation populations tend to settle in areas where their parents lived.
Since 2004, A8 migrants settled in more rural locations because there were particular job shortages they could fill.
Boston, Lincolnshire had 16% of its resident population from A8 countries in 2015.
Large scale migration will cause a number of social challenges in rural areas:
Hosing shortages and price rises.
Challenges in delivering education and healthcare because of language barriers and limited service supply.
Cultural challenges in traditional rural areas.
British Bangladeshi population
Concentrated in some of the poorest parts of the UK.
33% of the population of Tower Hamlet (ranked 247 out of 326 for deprivation) is Bangladeshi .
50% speak Bengali as their first language.
Over 65% live in low income households.
Highest level of illnesses of any UK immigrant group.
Lack of skills, inability to speak English and discrimination in the job market explains why British Bangladeshis tend to live in deprived areas.
Segregation and variation
The urban landscape of some urban areas has been altered to reflect the social characteristics and culture or dominant ethnic groups.
e.g. Brick Lane, which is known as Banglatown.
First post-colonial migrants who arrived in the UK experienced outright hostility and widespread discrimination.
Experiences of ethnic groups has changed over time:
Ethnic groups have grown wealthier over time.
2nd/3rd generation immigrants have gone through UK educational system.
Communities have put their cultural stamp of the built environment.
Member of immigrant communities have become local councillors and MPs.
Cultural evolution in UK
Suburban communities- Britain's Indian community has moved out of poor inner-city areas and into the prosperous suburbs.
Cultural festivals - Notting Hill Carnival. Celebrates ethnic culture.
Political representation- in 2015, 41 MPs from ethnic minorities were elected, up from 4 in 1987. Ethnic minorities make up 4% of local councillors.
Cultural hybridisation- some aspects of ethnic minority culture have become part of British culture.
Southwark's regeneration plans
It has a culturally diverse population. It also suffers from high levels of deprivation but housing is expensive and in high demand.
Regeneration plans include:
Regeneration of Aylesbury estate- the 1960s tower block of council estate housing with a reputation for poverty and crime. Regeneration began in 2009.
A similar regeneration of the Heygate estate.
Plans to demolish and regenerate the Elephant and Castle shopping centre.
Opposition focuses on:
Lack of community involvement.
Lack of affordable housing.
Risk that gentrification will occur.
Those in favour of these schemes argue that they will create jobs, improve the urban environment and improve the reputation of the area.
Tension and conflict
Britain is still 81% white British.
A history of rare, racially motivated riots e.g. Brixton 1981.
The root causes of riots are often poverty, deprivation and lack of opportunity. Often triggered by a particular incident.
Examples of white flights and accusations that an existing population has been forced out of an area by an incoming ethnic group.
Illustrates why cultural change can sometimes lead to hostility between long term residents and recently arrived immigrants.
Over 20 mosques in Bury Park, where there is a high concentration of Muslims. These aren't understood by non-Muslims.
It has also seen demonstrations and clashes involving far right groups, such as the English defence league.
It's Asian population is more deprived than any other population. It is likely that they feel excluded and marginalised economically as well as culturally.
Measuring progress (Southwark)
83% of their population is economically active, which is higher than the London average of 78%. Unemployment is higher at 7% as opposed to 6% average.
Weekly earnings are £686 as opposed to £660 in London.
42% of Southwark's 19 year olds have no qualifications (36% in London.)
It has one of the highest rates of infant deaths and a high rate of homeless.
Young, education migrants from other parts of the UK appear to be doing very well.
Some international migrants from EU and skilled professionals are also prospering.
Some ethnic minority groups are suffering.
Evidence of social progress in Southwark but also very stark inequalities.
Deprivation fell in all wards, but more in the least deprived wards.
The gap between the least and the most deprived actually increased.
Experience of UK language, media, education and employment should help immigrants fit in over time. This means that traditions and cultures are altered.
Southwark hosts London's Africa centre. There are specific groups such as the Organisation of Blind Africans and Caribbeans founded in 1988 and the Ethnic Health foundation set up in 2002 to support health among black and other ethnic minority groups.
Sharp increase in hate crimes in recent years.
PwC is a major glaobal accounting and auditing TNC... (Southwark)
Between 1998 and 2006, PWC invested £1.8 billion and 30,000 employee volunteer hours supporting community education in Southwark's schools.
This had the support of local businesses and young people.
The Uk government is responsible for national-counter terrorism/ anti-extremism policies... (Southwark)
Contest and Prevent is designed to stop young Muslims from being radicalised. In 2015, Southwark was added to the list of areas receiving special support.
Prevention has been controversial because it focuses on one religion.
Southwark Council is one of the major providers of housing
Regeneration plans have involved selling off council housing and regenerating the areas as joining ventures between housing associations and private property developers.
Many residents have campaigned against these, due to the rise in rents expected.
Different stakeholders will use different criteria to judge the success of the programmes.
Some people in Southwark may feel like their lived experience is at risk, due to change.
Southwark Council plans to regenerate these homes but there is no guarantee that existing residents will be allowed to stay.
Rural places in the UK rarely have culturally diverse populations.
Exceptions include A8 migrants who move to rural Lincolnshire and the Highland of Scotland.
Rural places do have demographically diverse populations, with young people, working people and retired people.
Anglesey has been affected by...
Increase in leisure time and person mobility has boosted tourism here, bringing £250 million each year.
This is highly season, with most visitor arriving from May to September, meaning jobs are also seasonal.
Isolation means that it isn't a popular day tripper village, but it is a popular second home destination. About 2300 second homes on the island, and in 2016 nearly 800 of these hadn't been occupied for a year.
Second home demand pushes house prices up.
It's nuclear power station open in 1971 but closed in 2012, with no plans for a replacement.
Major developments on Anglesey
Energy island- plans to develop an economic hub on the island, focuses on low carbon energy. There are plans for biomass, tidal and new nuclear developments, as well as a science park focused on energy research.
Plans for a new nuclear power plant were put on hold in 2012. The anti nuclear power group, People Against Wylfa B led opposition to a replacement nuclear plant.
Council tax on second homes- voted to allow an increase in council tax by 100% on second homes from 2012 onwards.
This policy aims to reduce second homes and empty homes, so increasing housing supply for local, young people.
Land and lakes development- a £150 million private leisure park development with 300 homes and 300 holiday lodges is to be built.
The scale of the plans have upset some locals.
In 2016, Anglesey Council faced a £5.6 million budget shortfall and was planning to increase council tax by 4.5%. Higher taxes and fewer local services will not attract people or business.
Wants and needs of younger people (Anglesey)
Jobs that are well paid.
Connections to mainland Wales and beyond.
High quality education and skills training.
Social and leisure activities.