What is the density per km squared in the UK?
What is population density?
No of people/km^2
Compare India, Bangladesh, China pop density
India and Bangladesh have higher densities
How does England’s average pop density mask distribution of population? What is the actual distribution?
- Does not show that England has 3/4 of population, so it has a higher pop density
- there is a high density in the South East round to the North West, especially in cities
- low density in the South West, East Anglia and the North
- Wales and Scotland have even smaller population and smaller area, so this means the population densities are lower
- Northern Ireland have higher densities around Belfast, generally more spread
How has the population of the UK grown unevenly in the last 50 years?
- London and SE have grown rapidly
- NE and other regions have grown more slowly
What is the relationship between population distribution and relief?
- the higher above sea level, the lower the population density
- population density is lower in areas more than 200m above sea level
- also areas between 100-200m above sea level have low densities, such as the North Downs
Two examples for low pop density due to being above 200m sea level
Example for area between 100-200m above sea level with low pop density
What factors affect pop distribution in the Uk?
Physical, Historical, Recent Economic, Political
Why do physical factors affect population distribution in the UK?
- north of Tees-Exe Line, the land is higher with mountains and steep slopes, so farming is more difficult, colder, so less people live there
- south of the Tees-Exe line, the land is lower, flatter, better soils, close to coast, better weather, so they have higher population densities,
How do historical factors affect pop distribution in the UK?
Industrial Revolution encouraged migration to cities, mostly to London, which was the only city in UK in 1801, with over 100,000
How do economic factors affect pop distribution in the UK?
- growth in tertiary and quaternary sector as a post-industrial economy has lead to migration to places with good transport and communications, which is often the SE and London, as they are the centre of roads, rail, air, culture, banking, which leads to multiplier effect
How do political factors affect pop distribution in the UK?
- migration to London as heart of UK government and UK’s relationship w/ EU
What causes changes in pop distribution? (8 terms)
internal economic migration counter-urbanisation immigration re-urbanisation redevelopment retirement greenfield planning permission major planning decisions (e.g post WW2 motorways)
4b.1b What does pop structure and density vary according to ?
- placement in the rural-urban continuum
- THEREFORE accessibility, physical factors, historical development, role of planning
How much did the UK pop increase by 1950-2015
How has death rate changed UK 1950-2015
How is immigration and emigration changing
What is natural change
birth rate - death rate
Why did emigration and immigration decrease 1964-1984
1971 Immigration Act restricted immigration
1982 Australia emigration restricted
One example for why immigration increased (2004)
EU8 joined EU
Relationship between international migration and natural increase and why
As IM increases, so does NI
As immigrants are young, so contribute to rise in birth rates and population growth rate
What happened in the 1960s that grew population
baby boom, due to economy growth
Why did population growth slow in 70s and 80s
fertility rates decreased
DUE TO more women in work
What was the population increase like in the 90s and why
Slight increase due to late baby boomers having children
What happened to population growth in the 2000s and why
Increased significantly again
As UK was moving to tertiary sector, so more workers
Higher birth rate due to immigrants
Lower death rate due to better healthcare
How is population growth been since 2010 and why
due to immigration as net positive migration was higher than natural increase
perception that UK dealt better with recession than other countries
What are factors of population structure and dynamics (4b.1c)
Differences in fertility and mortality rates
International and internal migration
What is fertility rate
Number of live births per 1000 women of childbearing age(15-44) /year
Factors affecting fertility rate (2 social 1 economic and 1 political)
- role of women has changed, so more have careers, and do not want to spend lives at home, so decreased fertility rate
- religion can increase it
- pop policies like China’s one-child policy decrease it
- high economic cost (£60,000 for child UK 2005) so fertility rate decreases
Factors affecting mortality rate (3 social/political, one economic)
- more food supplies =more balanced diet, less starvation, so mortality rate decreases
- improved healthcare decreases mortality rates
- war increases mortality rates (Sierra Leone ha high mortality rate due to this)
- famine increases mortality rate (Sub-Saharan Africa has had poor harvests, leads to food shortages , famines)
What is the Demographic Transition Model?
shows historical shift from high birth rates and high infant death rates in societies with minimal technology, education (especially of women) and economic development, to low birth rates and low death rates in societies with advanced technology, education and economic development
How does birth rate and death rate change in Demographic transition model
HIGH to LOW
Describe Stage 1 of Demographic Transition Model and who is in it
birth rate death rate natural increase When uk was at this stage Life expectancy
High Birth Rate High Death Rate Stable/Slow Natural Increase ONLY Amazonian and Indonesian rainforests UK before 1769 Low life expectancy
Describe Stage 2 of the Demographic Transition Model
who’s in it birth rate death rate natural increase When uk was at this stage Life expectancy Medicine
Kenya, Egypt High birth rate Death rate falls rapidly Very rapid natural increase From 1760 UK Was at this stage Higher life expectancy Better medicine, mostly agricultural economics
Describe Stage 3 of the Demographic Transition Model
Birth rate and why Death rate natural increase when uk entered it and why Which country now
Falling birth rate, as birth control and economic change has happened, so people benefit from smaller families
Death rate falls more slowly than before
Natural increase slows down
UK entered in 1880, perhaps due to 1870 Education Act requiring children up to the age of 12 to go to school
Describe Stage 4 of Demographic Transition Model
Birth rate Death rate Natural Increase UK’s position and why Which countries are here
Low birth and death rates, but these are fluctuating, as good economy means people can afford children, but when there is unemployment, low wages, people postpone children
Falling then stable natural increase
UK is at Stage 4, as in the 60s, the economy and birth rate grew, but in the 70s, with the recession, the birth rate decreased
UK USA France
Stage 5 of the Demographic Transition Model
Death rate is rising again as there are more elderly, rising birth rate, but still both low as there is family planning, good health, improved statues of women
Many Eastern and Western countries are at this stage but not the UK
Germany and Japan
What are the 6 parts of the rural-urban continuum?
Inner City Outer City Beyond the city Rural-urban fringe Mixed rural areas Remote Rural areas
OR urban area urban fringe commuter belt accessible countryside remote countryside
Example of Inner city and info
- Newham, Inner London
- regeneration in London Docklands
- constant natural increase
- internal migration of students to work in the knowledge economy
Example of Outer city and info
- Kingston-Upon-Thames, Outer London
- expensive housing
- protected land
- UK born pop dominates
Beyond the city info
border between urban and rural area blurs
Rural-Urban fringe Info
- urban areas sprawl onto the countryside here
- suburban areas
- dormitory suburbs
- small local shops, more schools
Mixed rural areas example and info
- North Yorkshire
- Older ageing pop than in London
- planners forced to encourage employment+housing, as there are less old people
- increasing pop due to internal UK migration
Remote rural areas Info and Example
villages, remote farms
often mountainous, so tourism and farming is vital
difficult to commute from due to limited roads
but superfast broadband for the Highlands is beneficial
little internal migration
How does pop density and structure vary across the rural-urban continuum?
- generally decreases as you go out from the centre
- but there are exceptions
- CBD has low residential pop, so low density
- pop density on urban-rural fringe has increased, due to large estates and suburbanisation
What causes variations in pop density?
- physical environment
- socio-economic status
- housing type and size
- services and functions
How is pop change in China? 2000 example
in 2000 it was increasing at over 1% per annum, with a 1.27 billion pop
How has there been a demographic transition in China?
- in Stage 3 in 60s
- now Stage 4
- now moving towards Stage 5
- fertility rate is falling, so China’s pop will stabilise from 2025
- lower life expectancy than Western countries, but catching up (2016 76.25 years, compared w/ UK 80.96 years)
- higher infant mortality rate than UK
- one child policy resulted in high proportion of males
Issues of looking at pop structures of China?
- does not show political change affecting it, such as one child policy
- predictions may not always be correct
- don’t always represent whole pop
What are the two terms stated in the spec for variation in pop characteristics?
Reasons for gender variation within and between settlements
- some cities have more males as they are the first to migrate
- rural areas have more single men as research shows women do not just put up with things, and there are more male farm owners
- coastal retirement location have more women as women live longer, so retire longer
What are two things from spec that are reasons for why urban areas are seen differently by different groups? 4B.4
How does spec say urban places were perceived in Industrialisation?
dangerous and threatening
How does spec say urban places are perceived now and why?
- economic opportunities
- variety of social and leisure activities
Social factors that made Victorian London dangerous and threatening
children as young as 5 at work
outbreaks of cholera
high crime - prostitution
Environmental factors that made Victorian London dangerous and threatening
- appalling working conditions
- raw sewage thrown into river
Economic factor that made Victorian London dangerous and threatening
London growth rate due to attractiveness
Why is London so attractive to migrants?
- major employment hub
- many services
- pre-existing awareness
Why are some urban locations perceived as undesirable according to spec?
- high crime rates
- low environmental quality
- pop characteristics and rep
- lived experience
- media representation
Reading Nepalese community
-many veterans, especially in Aldershot, Palmer Park, but perhaps alienated and threatening to some
- second most peaceful city in UK
- but also seen as dangerous
- Google’s top suggestion includes that for ‘Bradford is’ a dump
- people overestimate its dangers
How has Liverpool’s image changed?
- there was derelict land, 1981 riots
- but now 2008 European Capital of Culture, with the One Shopping Centre, Liver Building, Musical history
How is Manchester perceived diff in diff areas?
- Manchester City has most crime at 577 in Dec 2015
- but Altrincham and Sale has less crime at 186 Dec 2015, also highest house prices
- so shows crime is an undesirable factor
past its prime
Up and Coming
Regenerated in parts due to Olympic Park
What is causing young families to leave London?
property prices increasing
What is it called when you leave city?
How many less children in London per year?
Has London gained or lost people aged 19-21 after 2011?
‘Urban reality’ of living in urban areas
high living costs low environmental quality social isolation ethnic diversity increase elderlys experience social polarisation
What are the contrasting demographic groups spec says as perceiving suburban and city areas differently in desirability?
life cycle stage
Human factors influencing people’s perception of areas
age ethnic background health gender income etc
Accessibility factors influencing people’s perception of areas
car ownership access to public transport access to services broadband community activities employment
Environmental factors influencing people’s perception of areas
open space levels of pollution congestion crime physical geog
How does Household life cycle model show differing perceptions of areas
- young people want to move to inner cities
- starting a family will move to suburbs
- older and wealthier will move to commuter village/town
- recent migrants to inner cities
Who lives in accessible countryside?
retired people, and wealthy people. as these honeypot areas are sought after
Why is depopulation in remote countryside
Remote so worse env. worse QoL spiral of deprivation ghost-town effect of second homes
How do diff people view rural areas?
- long term residents see threat from migration
- recent migrants dislike new buildings as they are attracted to landscape
- investors see them as business opportunity
- environmentalists think nature should be protected there
- local council may see them as problem as there is low employment
With what quantitative data can we measure perception of Reading?
Crime Rate per 1000
How can house prices show perception?
High house prices mean more people want to live there. so better perception
How can crime rate per 1000 show perception? What happens if there is more crime?
If there’s a higher crime rate per 1000 in one areas, it means less well-paid people want to live there, so there is less development or even gentrification, leading to crime, so spiral of decline
How can ASB change perception of an area>
ASB (fighting, setting fires) will make people move, leading to neglect, businesses close down, leading to more crime
Pros of Cornwall, our chosen place?
- superfast broadband, with 92% connected by 2015
- stunning coast and scenery
- special local food and drink - seafood, pasties, clotted cream
- sub-tropical climate
Cons of Cornwall, our chosen place?
- remote, 2014 rail links cut only rail links into Devon
- hard to commute
- low salaries
- frequent storms and rain
- low social opportunities
- limited services
- high transport costs
- only shopping centres are in Exeter and Plymouth
- lower rep w/ tourism of hen parties
Two media perceptions of Cornwall
Metro Cornwall - ‘plenty of reasons why Cornwall is considered to be the best place to live…miles of coastline, sub-tropical coastline, home of Poldark’
Daily Mirror 2015 - ‘banning mankinis in Newquay has cut ASB behaviour from notorious party town’
Teenager’s view of Cornwall
it’s boring for teenagers
Tourist’s view of Cornwall
Bits of it are lovely and bits of it are miserable
Resident’s view of Cornwall
Beaches are lovely - if it’s sunny! QUite an adjustment..people can be quite anti-outsiders, but I’ve found there are lovely people too!
What are cultural and demographic issues and conflict in our local place, Reading?
Lack of affordable housing
Why is Reading’s inequality a problem?
- only London, Cambridge and Oxford have higher levels of inequality
- seventh least affordable town/city
- nearly 1/4 of Reading’s young people live in poverty
What is Reading doing to make more affordable ?housing?
building more houses
Why is Reading’s diversity an issue to some?
- ethnic tensions
- ethnic enclaves
Is culture and society now more diverse in the UK? 4B.7
Where are people from London increasingly moving to? What is this called?
towns like Bournemouth
What is sub-urbanisation?
movement from inner city to suburb
When did sub-urbanisation start happening, and what was a consequence?
decentralisation, lengthening people’s commute
What happened in 60s linked w/ suburbanisation
white families moved to escape city diversity to more homogenous suburbs
What are two terms for moving in and out of city?
Why does international migration happen?
social clustering gov policy jobs airport accessibility house prices
What are the two sources inward flow to the Uk has been from 1945?
Describe post-colonial migration from countries in the former British empire
- UK had labour shortage after WW2,so encouraged migrants from old African colonies, Caribbean, Indian empire
- Act of Parliament attracted them as it granted them free entry
- they worked in public transport, but the poor pay made them set up shops and restaurants
- settled in cities in late 50s, but in the deprived inner cities
- so their descendants still live there
Describe migration from EU countries
- 1990s, UK had labour shortage, so they relaxed immigration restrictions
- coinciding with the collapse of the USSR, Eastern Europeans were now freer and more willing to look for work
- so over the decades they have come
- before 2004 EU15 migrants
- 2004 A8 migrants (Hungary, Estonia..)
- they moved not just to cities, but everywhere w/ farms and factories
- e/g Boston
- but recession changed their situation, as gov now wanted to prioritise UK citizens, so they made a required work visa, but illegal immigration rose
- and EU’s free movement meant they cld not do much
What can international migrants choosing to live in rural areas create? 4B.7c
Why are E Europeans coming to Boston?
- need for workers in picking, packing, plucking
- used to long hours
- large salary for them
- low cost of living in rural areas
- can send remittances
Cons of E Europeans coming?
- exploitation due to no trade union
- remittances mean less to economy
- they buy cheaper housing e.g £60/week, which pushes out residents
- higher pressure on services
- more job comp
- integrating the children into schools is harder, with £1000 a child needed for support
How has immigration changed Boston?
- diversified economy
- work all year round
- ethnic tensions
- younger pop
- culturally and economically globalised
- international shops
What do levels of segregation reflect in terms of variation? 4B.8
What is segregation?
separation of people of diff backgrounds, wealth, culture
immigrants tend to live in gtoups
Internal factors for why segregation happens
- mutual support and friendships
- less chance of racial discrimination
- opportunities to use minority language
- increasing power and political influence in area
External factors for why segregation happens, by majority to encourage it
- estate agents may (un)consciously concentrate groups
- fear of violence
- racial hostility
- minorities are more likely to pick cheaper areas, as they are poorer or more likely to be subject to job discrimination
- majority pop move out
Why are Russian oligarchs buying housing in London?
- specialist Russian services
- extravagant shops
- private schools (2013 8% pupils)
- short flight home
- more secure to buy physical British housing in case Russian rouble falls against dollar
- lower crime rates (16,000 murders RU, < 600 UK
- gov has made it easy for rich to stay, w/ three year visas for those investing over £1 million in gov bonds
Where are British Bangladeshi clustered?
poorest parts of the UK
How much % of deprived Tower Hamlets are Bangladeshi?
How much % higher unemployment rate do Bangladeshi have than UK?
Why are British Bangladeshi living in deprived areas?
- lack of skills
- low English proficiency
- job discrimination
- segregation + clustering
What are three indicators in the urban landscape showing the presence of ethnic minorities?
places of worship
Which place has the largest Asian community in London?
Where is the pub in Britain where you can only pay in rupees?
Features of Southall
- Bollywood cinema
- loud Bhangra music
- huge spices supermarket
- ‘Little India’
- ethnic festivals
- suburban housing first built in early 1900s
- one of largest Sikh temples outside India
When were the Southall riots? ethnic violence
What is the Southall Big Plan
improving streets - Southall Broadway 2015
Why has perception of minorities changed for the better in the UK in some ways?
- minorities are wealthier
- children of minorities find it easier to integrate
- ‘cultural stamp’ on some places has created cultural familiarity
- people are more assimilated
- more BAME MPs and in the media, so better representation
Examples of cultural evolution in the UK since 1950s?
- more suburban communities (Indians in Leicester moving to suburbs)
- more cultural festivals (Notting Hill Festival)
- better political representation (41 BAME Mps ‘15)
- cultural hybridisation
Characteristics of first generation immigant
- not at home
- identify w/ home culture more
- often unskilled, so often poorly paid
- live in segregated inner city areas
- English not used at home
Second generation immigrant characteristics (child of immigrant)
- often want to be more British
- want better jobs
- cultural identity can be confusing
- more in suburbs
- English is their first language
- better educated
Third generation immigrant characteristics (grandchild of immigrant)
- integrated into British society
- better chance of employment
- live in suburbs
- better at speaking English
- better self-confidence w/ higher salaries
Bad statistics about ethnic minorities
- twice as likely to be unemployed
- half as likely to own their home
- twice as likely to be ill than White British
- some families prevent children learning English
London Docklands background
- became derelict in 1980s due to closure of docks
- regeneration started by late 80s for commercial and property use
Reason for derelict London Docklands
Thames was not deep enough to facilitate more advanced container ships in 70s
Social Impact of derelict London Docklands
12,000 jobs lost
Economic impact of London Docklands closing
Regeneration and gentrification London Docks
- private, top down
- transformed demographic
- more luxury housing than social
- polarisation of old and new residents
Challenges as a result of regeneration of London Docklands
- unemployment did not decrease
- rents rose
Opportunities from London Docklands regeneration
- more jobs -90,000 2000, compared w/ 27,000 1981
- more high paying
- better transport
- 200,000 new trees
- open space
Pepys Estate Deptford Background
- prosperous naval backyard until 1869, as vessels were too big to fit
- badly hit by Great Depression, bombed in ww2
- regeneration started 50s and 60s
Why did they try to regenerate Pepys Estate in Deptford , social , economic, environmental
social - to improve economic image
economic - to get Deptford more prosperous, halt population loss
environmental - get rid of slum and bomb-damaged housing
regeneration Pepys Estate
-1966 bulldozed old housing to make social housing for 1200 households
gentrification Pepys Estate
- 90s by Hyde Group to make high quality housing . five new blocks
- rents rose, more people, so more gentrification
Challenges after first regeneration Pepys Estate
-residents could not cope with interlinking bridges, as they became crime corridors for mugging
Challenges after gentrification of Pepys Estate
old residents pushed out, so tensions
conditions not improved
Opportunities after regeneration of Pepys Estate
- boost to local economy
- improved housing, amenities
- more affluent newcomers
What was the first sign of division in Luton?
people did not do National Census 2001, as they were disengaged with the gov
Protests in Luton
- 2009 anti-war protests by Muslims against British Army lead to 2 arrests, which was called a ‘hotbed of Islamic Radicalism’
- Jan 2016 ‘Britain’s First’ March, where they held wooden crosses, confronted people about religion, and said ‘this is our country not yours’
Why have Eu-born migrants moving into Luton created tensions
- Asian pop feel Eastern Europeans have more opportunities, as they are more deprived generally,so may feel culturally and economically marginalised
- minority of British White feel it has threatened them
Social exclusion Glasgow
- investment has only benefited some areas, so deprived are hostile to gov for this
- and within deprived areas, there are tensions, as pockets of foreign-born people are created
- White British people believe these people are responsible for unemployment, dilution of Scottish culture, authorities not bothering to invest
- so minorities feel social exclusion, and this is strengthened by their poverty and trying to break out of the vicious deprivation cycle
Two Factors of more social exclusion Glasgow
7/7 London Bombings
2007 Glasgow Airport Attack
What can management be described?
planning and implementing actions that facilitate a transition from undesired situation to desired situation , with steps to ameliorate the problem
What are some cultural/demographic issues that require management?
quality of life
How can ethnicity be managed?
How can population structure be managed?
encouraging youthful pop
coping w/ ageing pop
What are some demographic positive indicators of change that can indicate whether management was a success?
steady population change, more young people
higher ethnic mix,
same life expectancy
What are some economic positive indicators of change, that can indicate whether management was a success
third/fourth sector jobs, lower unemployment, higher household income, less on minimum wage, higher house ownership, less on benefits
What is inequality?
when people have different levels of authority, competence and outcomes
How can inequality be evident?
imaginatively and materially
What is the easiest way to see inequality
What is most used measure of inequality
distribution of household income
How is distribution of household income to measure inequality shown visually?
How is distribution of household income to measure inequality shown mathematically?
The more the Lorenz Curve bends away from the Line of Equality, the …..equal the household income is
What number is perfect equality and total inequality on Lorenz Curve?
perfect EQ——total INEQ
Equation for Lorenz Curve?
G = A / A + B
How many domains does English IMD measure?
What are the domains that English IMD measures?
income, employment, education, health, crime, barriers to housing and services, living environment in order of importance
What is the most weighted domain in IMD (deprivation)
Has the regeneration in London been successful in reducing London’s deprivation in terms of general unemployment, infant mortality, Canary Wharf employment, health success?
- unemployment has decreased since 2010
- infant morality in London has decreased
- few locals are employed in Canary Wharf, so this does not improve living standards
- health success like treating cancer has not been due to regeneration but due to NHS targets
How many ethnic groups in Slough?
What percentage of Slough is White British?
Does a single ethnic group dominate Slough?
Four positives of Slough
- international companies and highest concentration of European headquarters in UK
- a 2017 article said it was the ‘most productive town’
- top for Employee Satisfaction in England in UK
Eight negatives of Slough
- White British can feel alienated with diversity
- ethnic tensions
- remittances don’t contribute to economy
- pressure on school places
- housing pressure, 7000 on waiting list, leading to illegal makeshift housing in gardens
- receive less funding than they should as the pop size cannot be estimated, as some do not have birth certificates
- original residents may not be able to get as high pay, as Eastern Europeans work for less and longer
What has Aik Saath been celebrated for?
- community cohesion
- empowering young people
- assisting police in lowering tensions
What are the three Aik Saath projects in Slough?
- InterAct Project
- 17,000 reasons to remember
- Chalvey Stories
What does the InterAct project aim to do?
connect people through social action and promote conflict resolution in Slough
Who meets in the InterAct project? Example?
young refugees and local young people of Slough
- Somalis and British Asians
What event did InterAct hold in Slough and why?
football tournament with 30 different backgrounds
break down barriers, and integrate Somalis, who are struggling to be part of Slough community
What are challenges of InterAct project?
language and cultural barriers
What does 17,000 reasons to remember try to fight?
marginalisation of the Polish in Slough
What did the 17,000 Reasons to remember try to teach?
teach Slough community about the sacrifices of the Polish air crew in the Second World War and contribution to securing British and Allied victory
What events did 17,000 Reasons to Remember project hold?
- interviews with veterans
- research visits
- exhibition about Polish history and war where 100 people came
When did Chalvey Stories start?
How many Roma people did they interview for Chalvey stories?
Why did Aik Saath do Chalvey Stories?
- build respect and understanding between Roma young people and other young residents
What did they do with the Chalvey Stories? Whose stories were they and what was the content?
handed out leaflets of stories
Whose stories were they and what was the content?
nine longtime Roma residents
what they remembered, how Chalvey is now, their hope for the future
What was also set up by Aik Saath for Chalvey?
Chalvey Youth Cafe
What did they do in Chalvey Youth Cafe?
- practice interviews
- advice on issues
Who attended Chalvey Youth Cafe?
- people of all sorts of ethnicities, such as Romanian, Pakistani
Who are the stakeholders regenerating Slough?
- Slough Borough Council
- Community Groups such as Aik Saath
- Aspire Slough
- environmental stakeholders
How have Slough Borough Council helped regenerate Slough?
- Slough Urban Renewal Project
- new facilities for Claypots Primary School
- over 100 new family houses Wexham Green
How has Slough Borough Council not been successful in regenerating? (1 example)
3 housing developments near centre are not affordable
When was Aik Saath created?
Why was Aik Saath created?
tackle gang tensions
What award has Aik Saath received?
Why is Aik Saath a success accoding to Sira?
the teenage trainers mean people can relate to them, so it lessens ethnic tensions and makes them want to aspire to be more
One reason why TNCs are moving to Slough?
proximity to Heathrow
TNC in Slough?
What does Aspire Slough do?
- develop people’s employability, so they can get high-paying TNC jobs?
How many new businesses has Aspire Slough created?
How many people have been able to access employment opportunities through Aspire Slough?
What have environmental stakeholders been doing to regenerate?
- Slough Borough Council have been improving the local environment, such as transport, air, safety
Why is the environmental regeneration been hard to control in Slough?
- hard to measure success of it, as it it such a broad area
What issues are there with stakeholders assessing the success of managing change?
- own views at interest
- have own criteria to see whether something has been successful or not e.g govs look at economic growth, locals look at ethnic tension, leading to varying levels of success for same place
- databases are not always from the same time, so uncomparable
What percentage of Cornish homes are second homes?
What is the problem with second homes?
- don’t contribute to local economy as there are less people
Why are there problems with housing in Cornwall?
- too expensive as Cornwall is mostly primary sector, so only retired and rich people can afford them
- second homes
Which primary industries in Cornwall have declined?
- milk industry
- fishing industry
- tin mining
Why did Cornwall’s milk industry decline?
farmers could not keep up with supermarket prices
Why did Cornwall’s fishing industry decline?
sea was overfished
Which type of quarries were abandoned in Cornwall?
china clay quarries
How many people were employed in the Cornwall quarries in the 1960s?
When was the last mine in Cornwall?
What is access to healthcare and education in Cornwall like?
not good, as
- doctor’s surgeries only open one morning a week
- only a few buses per day
- sometimes have to travel 30 miles for education or Truro main hospital
What two projects have Cornwall done to boost development?
What did the Eden Project site used to be on?
china clay quarry
When did Eden Project open?
How much did Eden Project cost?
Why was Eden Project opened?
improve rural area
Benefits of Eden Project
generated £1.1 billion for Cornwall
priorities local suppliers
13 million visitors benefit hotels and restaurants
extended tourism to all year, not just summer
improved and sustainable landscape
Cons of Eden Project?
local firms have less visitors
falling visitors as people only visit once
partly unsustainable as 97% of people come by car
has not completely brought all rural people out of poverty, as some areas are still lowest nationally IMD
What type of zone has Cornwall been decided as?
What does Cornwall get from being an Enterprise Zone?
- tax discounts
- no planning permission needed
- superfast broadband, leading to 2000 new jobs being created
What do companies get from investing in Cornwall?
Costs of Enterprise Zone Cornwall
high costs at £ 132 million
cables disturb environment
Key players in managing change in Cornwall?
EU UK government Local gov Stakeholders in local economy Environmental Stakeholders
How has EU helped Cornwall?
funding for Eden project
Why are local gov not happy with Cornwall?
no funding for startups
Why are stakeholders in the local economy happy with Cornwall?
tourism is increasing, therefore profit
Why are environmental stakeholders not happy with Cornwall?
environment and biodiversity is being destroyed
How many people in Reading compared with Slapton?
162,666 - 480
What is the median age in Reading compared with Slapton?
33 Reading - 48 Slapton
What is Reading’s pop density compared with Slapton’s pop density?
432/km^2 - 35.54/km^2
What is the biggest specific age bracket in Reading compared with Slapton?
30-39 years, whilst Slapton’s is 60-69 years
What percentage of Reading were born outside the UK?
What percentage of Slapton were born in the UK?
Is Reading or Slapton more deprived? (IMD)
What is Reading’s IMD
146 / 326 local authorities
What is Slapton’s IMD
209 / 326 local authorities
What is Reading’s best domain in IMD?
What is Slapton’s best domain in IMD?
What is Reading’s domain to be improved in IMD?
environment, one of the worst areas for it
What is Slapton’s domains to be improved in IMD?
Slapton’s economic activities bringing in money
Slapton Ley Field Studies Centre
How much money does Slapton Ley Field Studies Centre bring for Slapton?
£100,00 from people buying food
Reading’s economic activities bringing in money
business and services
How many FDI projects in Reading 2017-18?
Which global brands in Reading?
Did Reading population increase or decrease from 2001 to 2011?
Did Slapton population increase or decrease from 2001 to now?
increase, but only by 8 people
Cultural things in Slapton
- no ethnic restuarants
- not culturally diverse
What cultural festivals in Reading?
- Park Lime Festival, where there is Carribean reggae
- Reading Thai food and craft festival
- Reading Chilli festival
Cultural things in Reading
ethnic restaurants and shops
places of worship
How many places of worship in Reading?
- WW2 people had to be evacuated so that American troops could practise there for D-Day landing, and it was mined, so secret that hardly anyone knew what was happening
Employment Reading Slapton comparison
Reading has 5th most qualified UK workforce, and highest UK employment rate, and Slapton has lower unemployment rate than national average
How similar are Reading and Slapton % qualifications?
What percentage of Reading and Slapton have no qualifications?
17.4 % Reading, Slapton 17.2%
Has South Asian community increased or decreased in Reading 2001 - 2011?
increased, from 5.2% to 12.6%
How many non British people Slapton 2011?
How many people in Slapton have a different religion other than Christianity?