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Flashcards in Diversity of Microorganisms Deck (73):
1

Microorganisms can be classified according to their...

Nutritional pattern - metabolic diversity

2

What do phototrophs use as their source of energy?

Light

3

What do chemotrophs use as their source of energy?

Oxidation of matter

4

What do autotrophs use as their source of carbon?

Inorganic - carbon dioxide

5

What do heterotrophs use as their source of carbon?

Organic compounds

6

What does anabolic mean?

Anabolic - build up to make more complex molecules

7

What does catabolic mean?

Break down molecules to smaller molecules

8

What microbes are normally in the chemoautotroph division?

Bacteria and archaea living in hostile environments

9

What is the source of energy for chemoautotrophs?

Chemical - inorganic compounds such as hydrogen sulphide, or ferrous iron

10

How is energy produced for chemoautotrophs?

Electrons are captured from inorganic compounds such as iron and passed along the ETC, ATP produced

11

What is the energy produced used for by chemoautotrophs?

To reduce co2 to make complex carbon molecules

12

What are complex carbon molecules?

Carbohydrates, fats, proteins

13

What is ferrous iron converted do and by which bacteria?

Ferric iron acidithiobaciullus ferrooxidans

14

What is sulphur converted to and by which bacteria?

Sulphuric acid - acidithiobacillus ferooxidans

15

What microbes are normally in the chemoheterotroph group?

Include fungi, protozoa and most bacteria

16

What do chemoheterotrophs use as their source of carbon?

Organic compounds

17

What do chemoheterotrophs use as their energy source?

Chemical - break down carbon

18

Humans and almost all medically important microbes make up which group?

The chemoheterotrophs

19

What microbes are in the photoautotroph category?

Oxygenic - cyanobacteria, anoxygenic - green and purple bacteria

20

What do photoautotrophs use as their energy source?

Light

21

What do photoautotrophs use as their carbon source?

Carbon dioxide

22

What is the energy used for by photoautotrophs?

To fix carbon dioxide to make complex carbon molecules

23

How do cyanobacteria and green&purple bacteria differ?

Cyanobacteria - oxidise water to oxygen. Green and purple bacteria capture light from pigments to convert hydrogen sulphide into sulphur - primitive

24

Are photoautotrophs anabolic or catabolic?

Anabolic

25

What do photoheterotrophs use as their energy source?

Light

26

What do photoheterotrophs use as their carbon source?

Organic carbon moleules

27

Examples of photoheterotrophs?

Green and purple sulphur bacteria

28

Photoheterotrophs are usually...

Anoxygenic

29

Are photoheterotrophs anabolic or catabolic?

Catabolic

30

What is an eukaryotic microbe?

Contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

31

What is a prokaryotic microbe?

Doesn't contain a nucleus or any membrane bound organelles

32

What is the typical diameter of a cocci prokaryotic cell?

0.2-2 mirometers

33

What is the typical length of a rod prokaryotic cell?

2-8 micrometers

34

What is the difference between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic flagella?

Prokaryotic - simple, consists of two proteins. Eukaryotic - complex, consists of multiple microtubules

35

Which cell wall when present is chemically complex?

Prokaryotes

36

Which plasma membrane has sterols and carbohydrates present that act as receptors?

Eukaryotic cell membranes

37

How do ribosomes differ in prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

70S in prokaryotes, 80S in eukaryotes

38

Which cell type has multiple linear chromosomes with histones?

Eukaryotic

39

Which cell type contains single circular chromosomes, bacteria lacking histones and archaea have histones?

Prokaryotic

40

What is the most abundant group of living organisms?

Bacteria

41

What are the common shapes of bacteria?

Coccus, rod, spirillum, spirochete, filamentous

42

Bacteria are uni-

Cellular ;)

43

Bacteria divide by

binary fission

44

Bacterial cell walls contain

peptidoglycan - a sugar polymer

45

What is useful about a bacterial cell wall?

Can be stained to classify species

46

Cell membranes in bacteria are composed of...

Unbranched fatty acid chains attached to glycerol by ester linkages

47

Individual bacteria may form...

pairs, chains, clusters

48

What are the three main groups of archaea?

Methanogens, extreme halophiles and extreme thermophiles

49

What are methanogens?

Archaea - strict anaerobes, produce methane

50

What are extreme halophiles attracted to?

Salt

51

What are extreme thermophiles attracted to?

Heat

52

Who classified archaea as a distinct grouping?

Carl Woese

53

Archaea are predominantly ...

Chemoheterotrophs

54

In archaea, the DNA is associated with

histones

55

In archaea, the cell wall does not contain

Peptidoglycan

56

Plasma membranes in archaea are composed of

branched hydrocarbon chains attached to glycerol by ether linkages - different to bacteria

57

Fungi are part of which group?

Chemoheterotrophs

58

Fungi cell walls are made of...

Chitin

59

What is a spore?

a spore is a unit of asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavorable conditions - fungi are able to form spores

60

Which fungi are unicellular?

yeasts such as candida albicans

61

Is yeast forming spores sexual or asexual?

sexual

62

Is yeast budding sexual or asexual?

asexual

63

Examples of multicellular fungi?

molds and mushrooms

64

Multicellular yeasts contain mycelia. What are mycelia?

They are composed of long branched filaments called vegetative hyphae

65

Multicellular fungi reproduce by which mechanisms?

Hyphal fragmentation (asexual), sporangia (asexual) and gametangia (sexual)

66

Yeast are dimorphic, what does this mean?

They can either grow as mold (mycelium) or yeast (unicellular)

67

Describe an example of yeast being dimorphic.

Blastomyces dermatitidis survive in soil that contains debris mycelium, infects mammals - unicellular form causes Blastomycosis. Switch at 37 degrees triggers change to yeast like form.

68

Describe protozoa in two words

free living and parasitic

69

Protozoa move by

pseudopodia or flagella or cilia

70

What are the three methods that protozoa can reproduce aseuxally?

Binary fission where one cell can split into two. Schizogony where the nucleus divides many times before the cell divides. Budding where buds form and pinch off of the parent cell.

71

How can protozoa reproduce sexually?

By the fusion of gametes and some produce cysts

72

The cell walls of algae contain...

cellulose

73

Algae can be unicellular or multicellular, give an example of the multicellular type.

Seaweeds