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Flashcards in History of Microbiology Deck (35):
1

What did Robert Hooke report in 1665?

Living things were composed of little boxes or cells

2

What is the cell theory?

The theory that all living things are composed of cells

3

Which scientist described what he saw in rainwater and tooth scrapings as animalcules?

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

4

What is the theory of spontaneous generation?

The hypothesis that living organisms arise from non-living matter; a 'vital force' forms life

5

What did Francesco Redi do to disprove spontaneous generation?

Filled two jars with meat. One jar sealed - no maggots appeared. One open jar - maggots appeared

6

What was the argument against Redi's work?

Antagonists claimed that sealing the jar prevented fresh air which was the vital force from getting to the meat.

7

Why was Redi's work a blow to the spontaneous theory?

He used a gauze instead of fully sealing the lid allowing air in, maggots didn't appear. Scientists believed that small organisms could still be generated from non-living materials.

8

What was John Needhams role in the argument?

He claimed spontaneous generation was the correct theory

9

What experiment did John Needham conduct?

Put boiled nutrient broth into covered flasks. Claimed microbes developed spontaneously from the fluids

10

What was Lazzaro Spallanzani's role in the debate?

Sealed jars, boiled nutrient broth. Microbes weren't present. Suggesting microbes from air entered the broth.

11

What is the theory of biogenesis and who came up with it?

The hypothesis that living organisms arise from pre-existing life - Rudolf Virchow

12

Who resolved the argument between Biogenesis and Spontaneous Generation?

Louis Pasteur

13

What experiment did Louis Pasteur conduct?

Repeated Spallanzani's work with a S-shaped neck to allow air in because Spallanzani's work was criticized for not allowing air in.

14

Why was the liquid not contaminated in Louis Pasteurs experiments?

The microorganisms were trapped in the bend, oxygen was allowed in so the liquid remained sterile.

15

When was the Golden Age of microbiology?

1857-1914

16

Main scientists leading the Golden Age of Microbiology?

Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch

17

What were the two main discoveries in the Golden Age of Microbiology?

Relationship between microbes and disease (germ theory) discovered and advances in the role of immunity in combating disease

18

How did Pasteur prevent wine and beer souring?

Found yeast converting sugars to alcohol. In air bacteria turned alcohol to acetic acid (vinegar) causing spoilage. Spoilage bacteria killed by applying high heat for a short time.

19

What was thought to be the causes of disease pre-Pasteur?

Unknown overall. Evil spirits and punishment.

20

What is the Germ Theory of Disease?

The realisation that microbes cause disease

21

What did Ignaz Semmelweis bring to the Germ Theory in the 1840's?

Physicians who didn't wash their hands transmitted infections. Advocated hand washing.

22

What did John Snow bring to the Germ Theory in the 1850's?

Demonstrated cholera outbreak in Soho was due to contaminated water. Traced outbreak to a simple pump, removed handle.

23

What did Joseph Lister bring to the table in the 1860's?

Used chemical disinfectant carbolic acid - phenol to prevent surgical wound infections

24

When and who proved that bacteria actually caused disease?

In the 1870's - specifically 1876 Robert Koch

25

How did Robert Koch prove that bacteria cause disease?

A bacterium causes anthrax and provided experimental steps for the procedure of determining the bacteria

26

List the experimental steps to Koch's postulates

The same pathogen must be present in every case of the disease
The pathogen must be isolated from the diseased host and grown in pure culture
The pathogen from the pure culture must cause the disease when it is inoculated into a healthy, susceptible lab animal
The pathogen must be isolated from the inoculated animal and must be shown to be the original organism

27

Limitations to Koch's postulates?

Animal models are not always available, for example not for cholera or chlamydias

28

What is chemotherapy?

Treatment of disease by using chemical substances

29

Who speculated about a magic bullet and what is it?

Paul Ehrlich believed there was a magic bullet that could destroy a pathogen without harming the host.

30

How did dyes play a role in chemotheraphy?

Dyes can differentiate between parasite and host, such dyes may exhibit selective toxicity

31

What is special about atoxyl?

Protected mice from trypanosomes. Modified to many derivatives, one was the 1st cure for syphilis - named Salvarsan.

32

When did Fleming accidentally discover the first antibiotic?

1928. He observed antibacterial activity of penicillin fungus producing an antibiotic that killed staphylococcus aureus.

33

Problems with sulfonamides?

Caused a variety of side effects, urinary tract disorders

34

Where is streptomycin/neomycin from?

The soil

35

Where did Brotzu discover cephalosporin from?

From microbes growing in a sewer