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Biology (Photosynthesis/Cell Respiration) > DNA > Flashcards

Flashcards in DNA Deck (14)
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1

Double Helix

A pair of parallel helices intertwined about a common axis, especially that in the structure of the DNA molecule.

2

Nucleotide

Are organic molecules consisting of a nucleoside and a phosphate.

3

Deoxyribose

A sugar derived from ribose by replacing a hydroxyl group with hydrogen.

4

Base-pairing Rules

Chargaff's rules state that DNA from any cell of any organism should have a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio of pyrimidine and purine bases

5

DNA Replication

is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.

6

Replication Fork

is a structure that forms within the long helical DNA during DNA replication

7

DNA Helicase

are a class of enzymes vital to all organisms.

8

DNA polymerase

is a member of a family of enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of DNA molecules from nucleoside triphosphates, the molecular precursors of DNA.

9

RNA

is used in key metabolic processes for all steps of protein synthesis in all living cells and carries the genetic information of many viruses.

10

Transcription

is the first of several steps of DNA based gene expression in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA

11

Translation

is the process of translating the sequence of a messenger RNA

12

Messenger RNA

plays a vital role in human biology, specifically in a process known as protein synthesis

13

Transfer RNA

is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.

14

Gene Expression

is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.