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1

Chromatin

Chromosomal material made up of DNA, RNA and HISTONE proteins as found in a non-dividing cell

2

Extracellular DNA

Small amounts of DNA found in mitochondria of plants and animals, and chloroplasts in plants

3

Purines

Two fused rings of nitrogen, carbon and hydrogen atoms

4

Pyrimidines

Made up of one ring of similar atoms ( much smaller than purines)

5

Exons

Protein-coding regions of a DNA molecule

6

Introns

Non- coding regions that interrupt exodus

7

Replication

The process of making a new DNA molecule from an existing DNA molecule that is identical to the original molecule

8

Histone

Protein

9

Marker

(Result of occasional mutation)

Site where one nucleotide is replaced by another as a result of mutation

10

Matrilineage

Female lineage

11

CRS

( Cambridge reference system)

A source of information of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) commonly found in people of European descent

12

Transcription

The process by which DNA makes and codes RNA

13

Codon

'Code word' consisting of three nitrogenous bases which mRNA carries from the nucleus to the ribosomes, which determine which protein is made

14

Translation

The process by which a specific protein is formed from a chain of amino acids due to the sequence of codons in the mRNA, which in turn, was coded by DNA

15

Antibiotics

Pharmalogical drugs produced to counteract bacterial infections

16

Mutation

Any alteration in the genetic code of an organism

17

Mutagen

Physical or chemical agents that induce and speed up mutations in DNA

18

Gene mutations

Small, localised mutations in the structure of DNA strands

19

Point mutations

Changes that involve a single nucleotide

20

DNA profile

An individual's unique DNA fragments, separated by electrophoresis

21

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

A laboratory technique used to make multiple copies of a segment of DNA

22

Gel electrophoresis

a method to separate large molecules mainly on the basis of size and electrical charge

23

Forensics

The use of scientific technologies to investigate a crime

24

Precipitate

Solid material that comes out of a solution due to a chemical or physical change

25

STR

Short tandem repeats
Found in interons