Flashcards in DNA to protein Deck (85)
base and sugar
nucleoside and phosphate group
what is the difference between ribose and deoxyribose?
on C2 of ribose there is an OH instead of an H
what are the two purines?
adenine and guanine
what are the three pyramidines?
uracil, thymine and cytosine
in polymerisation a phosphodiester bond is formed between a free 3’ __ group and a 5’ ________
A phosphodiester bond is formed between a free 3’ OH group and a 5’ triphosphate
polymerisation releases 2 __ enegy bonds
new nucleotides are only added to a free _’ end
analogues of thymidine (ZDV=AZT=retrovir) can be used as drugs. The analogue is incorporated into the growing viral DNA
Lacks _’ __ group, therefore, chain elongation is terminated
Is incorporated into the growing viral DNA
Lacks 3’ OH group, therefore, chain elongation is terminated
the nucleotide analogue mechanism only works because viral _____ ______ has higher affinity for ZDV than human DNA polymerases
Replication is semi-______
replication is catalysed by ________
DNA polymerase requires a ____ primer to start replication
in eukaryotes Replication starts simultaneously at several points in the genome
and is bidirectional, what is the advantage of this?
ensures that replication can be finished in a reasonable time
the leading strand template runs from __' to __'
5 to 3
the lagging strand template runs from __' to __'
which enzyme synthesises the primer for replication?
DNA ______ unwinds the double helix
after the okazaki fragments have been generated the ____ are degraded and filled in by DNA -_______
DNA polymerase has 3’ → 5’ _______ activity
exonuclease which removes incorrect nucleotide
RNA is usually ___ stranded with local stretches of _______ base-pairing
what are the three main classes of RNA
1. ribosomal RNA
2. transfer RNA
3. messenger RNA
what are the stable RNAs?
ribosomal and transfer
what is the function of ribosomal RNA?
combines with proteins to form ribosomes where protein synthesis takes place
what is the function of transfer RNA?
carries the amino acids to be incorporated into the protein
what is the function of messenger RNA?
carries the genetic information for protein synthesis
RNA contains __ instead of thymine
rRNA has __ units to it
in tRNA specific amino acid is attached to the _’ end
depends on _______ sequence
Specific amino acid is attached to the 3’ end
depends on anticodon sequence