Flashcards in Introduction to Biochemistry Deck (94)
Carbon can form 4 _____ bonds
the less oxidised the molecule the ____ energy contained in the bonds.
alkane (in fats) has ____ energy in its bonds than carbon dioxide (final product of catabolism)
what is the glycosidic bond in lactose?
galactose beta 1-4- glucose
what is the glycosidic bond in maltose?
glucose alpha 1,4 - glucose
what is the glycosidic bond in sucrose?
glucose alpha 1,2 - fructose
what is the glycosidic bond in cellobiose?
glucose beta 1-4- glucose
carbs are made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a ___:___:___ ratio
what is the free energy equation involving enthalpy and entropy
ΔG = ΔH – TΔS
for a process to occur delta G must be _____
an endothermic process with a negative ᐃS can never be _______, for example photosynthesis.
ΔG = (energy of the ______) – (energy of the ______)
ΔG = (energy of the products) – (energy of the reactants)
exergonic reactions are reactions in which the total free energy of the product(s) is _____ than the total free energy of the reactant(s)
exergonic reactions can occur +_____
endergonic reactions are reactions in which the total free energy of the product(s) is ____ than the total free energy of the reactant(s)
endergonic reactions cannot occur _____. They need an Input of _____ to proceed.
what is the equation for delta G for a given reaction
ΔG = ΔGo’ + RTln([C][D]/[A][B])
what is R
the universal gas constant
what is T
the absolute temperature
what is ΔGo’
the change in free energy under standard conditions
ΔG is related to the point of equilibrium: The further towards completion the point of equilibrium is, the ____free energy is released
ΔG values near ___ are characteristic of readily reversible reactions.
When the system is at equilibrium, forwards and backwards reactions are balanced:
ΔG = 0 and therefore
ΔGo’ = -RTlnKeq
Keq = [C][D]/[A][B]
(substrate and product concentrations at equilibrium)
reactions with a negative delta Go, i.e. reactions going from high energy reactants to low energy products, are ______
What about reactions with a positive delta G - it all depends on the initial concentrations of the _____
what is the effect of increasing [A][B] relative to [C][D] do the delta G ?
- [C][D]/[A][B] becomes smaller than 1
-the ln of a number smaller than 1 is negative!
many cellular processes are unfavourable and are driven by ____ to highly favourable processes
the breakdown of ATP is a very ____ delta G
The negative charges close together in ATP put a ____ (electrostatic repulsion) on the molecule that makes it less ____ than ADP