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Flashcards in Introduction to Biochemistry Deck (94)
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1

Carbon can form 4 _____ bonds

covalent

2

the less oxidised the molecule the ____ energy contained in the bonds.

more

3

alkane (in fats) has ____ energy in its bonds than carbon dioxide (final product of catabolism)

more

4

what is the glycosidic bond in lactose?

galactose beta 1-4- glucose

5

what is the glycosidic bond in maltose?

glucose alpha 1,4 - glucose

6

what is the glycosidic bond in sucrose?

glucose alpha 1,2 - fructose

7

what is the glycosidic bond in cellobiose?

glucose beta 1-4- glucose

8

carbs are made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a ___:___:___ ratio

1:2:3

9

what is the free energy equation involving enthalpy and entropy

ΔG = ΔH – TΔS

10

for a process to occur delta G must be _____

negative

11

an endothermic process with a negative ᐃS can never be _______, for example photosynthesis.

spontaneous

12

ΔG = (energy of the ______) – (energy of the ______)

ΔG = (energy of the products) – (energy of the reactants)

13

exergonic reactions are reactions in which the total free energy of the product(s) is _____ than the total free energy of the reactant(s)

less

14

exergonic reactions can occur +_____

spontaneously

15

endergonic reactions are reactions in which the total free energy of the product(s) is ____ than the total free energy of the reactant(s)

more

16

endergonic reactions cannot occur _____. They need an Input of _____ to proceed.

spontaneously, energy

17

what is the equation for delta G for a given reaction

ΔG = ΔGo’ + RTln([C][D]/[A][B])

18

what is R

the universal gas constant

19

what is T

the absolute temperature

20

what is ΔGo’

the change in free energy under standard conditions

21

ΔG is related to the point of equilibrium: The further towards completion the point of equilibrium is, the ____free energy is released

more

22

ΔG values near ___ are characteristic of readily reversible reactions.

zero

23

When the system is at equilibrium, forwards and backwards reactions are balanced:
ΔG = 0 and therefore
ΔGo’ = -RTlnKeq

Keq = [C][D]/[A][B]
(substrate and product concentrations at equilibrium)

24

reactions with a negative delta Go, i.e. reactions going from high energy reactants to low energy products, are ______

favourable

25

What about reactions with a positive delta G - it all depends on the initial concentrations of the _____

reactants

26

what is the effect of increasing [A][B] relative to [C][D] do the delta G ?

- [C][D]/[A][B] becomes smaller than 1
-the ln of a number smaller than 1 is negative!

27

many cellular processes are unfavourable and are driven by ____ to highly favourable processes

coupling

28

the breakdown of ATP is a very ____ delta G

negative

29

The negative charges close together in ATP put a ____ (electrostatic repulsion) on the molecule that makes it less ____ than ADP

strain, stable

30

the phosphate parts of ATP are anhydride bonds. These are ___ energy bonds. So when they break energy is _____

high, released