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Flashcards in DOMAIN 5- COMPREHENSION- Deck (65):
1

competency 12- understand literal, inferential, and evaluative comprehension and factors affecting reading comprehension

including: recognize how a reader's knowledge and skills in word analysis, fluency, vocabulary, and academic lang. as well as the reader's background knowledge affect comprehension (why automaticity in word recognition facilitates comprehension, how comprehension breaks down when relevant vocabulary or background knowledge is lacking.)

2

competency 12- understand literal, inferential, and evaluative comprehension and factors affecting reading comprehension

2. demonstrate knowledge of literal - reading comprehension (identifying explicitly stated main ideas, details, sequences, cause and effect relationships, patterns, and elements of story grammar)

3

competency 12- understand literal, inferential, and evaluative comprehension and factors affecting reading comprehension

3. demonstrate knowledge of inferential reading comprehension( inferring main ideas, comparisons, and cause and effect relationships not explicitly states in the text; drawing conclusions or generalizations from a text, using textual evidence to predict outcomes; inferring themes.

4

competency 12- understand literal, inferential, and evaluative comprehension and factors affecting reading comprehension

4. demonstrate knowledge of evaluative reading comprehension (recognizing instances of bias, unsupported assumptions, propaganda, and faulty reasoning in text; distinguishing facts and opinions in texts; reacting to a texts content, characters, and use of lang. analyzing themes.

5

competency 12- understand literal, inferential, and evaluative comprehension and factors affecting reading comprehension

5. recognize the role of syntax in facilitating or impeding reading comprehension and the importance of promoting students understanding of complex grammatical structures.

6

competency 12- understand literal, inferential, and evaluative comprehension and factors affecting reading comprehension

6. recognize the role of text structures in facilitating or impeding reading comprehension and the importance of promoting students understanding of how diff. types of texts are organized.

7

competency 12- understand literal, inferential, and evaluative comprehension and factors affecting reading comprehension

7. demonstrate knowledge of the relationship between students oral lang. and their ability to comprehend at the word, sentence, paragraph and text levels.

8

competency 12- understand literal, inferential, and evaluative comprehension and factors affecting reading comprehension

8. recognize the role of listening comprehension as a foundation for the development of reading comprehension and the importance of using oral lang. activities (strategic, purposeful read alouds, and to promote development of comprehension skills.

9

competency 12- understand literal, inferential, and evaluative comprehension and factors affecting reading comprehension

9. recognize the role that text based discussions (instructional conversations, questioning the author, think pair share ) play in enhancing comprehension

10

competency 12- understand literal, inferential, and evaluative comprehension and factors affecting reading comprehension

10. recognize how writing activities (summarizing, outlining, responding) help support and reinforce students understanding of a text and their development of reading comprehension skills.

11

competency 12- understand literal, inferential, and evaluative comprehension and factors affecting reading comprehension

11. recognize the role of independent reading in reinforcing reading comprehension skills and strategies and the importance of promoting purposeful independent reading as a pathway to healthy lifelong reading habits.

12

Questions for Review:
12.1- What are the levels of comprehension?
How should these levels be taught?

Levels of comprehension:
1. literal comprehension skills include clearly and explicitly identifying items such as main idea, sequence, patterns, cause and effect.
2. Inferential comprehension skills include making inferences concerning items not directly states, such as comparisons, drawing conclusions, predicting and cause/effect relationships not explicitly stated.
3. evaluative comprehension skills include critical reading, such as recognizing unsupported inferences in text, distinguishing between facts and opinions, using lang. and detecting propaganda and faulty reasoning.

13

Questions for Review:
12.1- What are the levels of comprehension?
How should these levels be taught?

Instruction in levels of comprehension should include the following:
1. direct, explicit instruction of skills
2. modeling of each level of comprehension skills
3. guided practice
4. independent practice
5. use of resources and materials and activities selected by the teacher to support effective instruction and practice in levels of comprehension.

skills and strategies represent diff. stages of development. a skills becomes a strategy when the students can use it independently.

14

Questions for Review:
12.2 How can a teacher facilitate student attainment of comprehension?

- provide instructional activities such as direct and indirect vocabulary building and fluency activities to build comprehension skills.
- teach, model, practice that text comprehension is both purposeful and active
-teach comprehension strategies and demonstrate their application throughout the reading (ex; monitoring comprehension, using graphic and semantic organizers, answering questions, and generating questions, recognizing story structure, visualizing, comparing and contrasting, previewing, predicting, retelling and summarizing and using prior knowledge. (put reading first, NIFL)

15

Questions for Review:
12.2 How can a teacher facilitate student attainment of comprehension?

-direct comprehension instruction, modeling, guided practice, and students independent application of comprehension skill.
-provide a repertoire of activities that foster connections between reading and writing.

16

competency 13- understand how to facilitate reading comprehension by providing instruction that prepares students for the reading task, scaffolds them as needed through the reading process, and prepares them to respond to what they have read.

1. demonstrate knowledge of explicit instructional strategies for orienting students to new texts (teacher modeling, previewing , using textual evidence to predict outcomes, using graphic features, activating and discussing prior knowledge related to the topic, developing background knowledge, setting a purpose for reading, generating questions prior to reading

17

competency 13- understand how to facilitate reading comprehension by providing instruction that prepares students for the reading task, scaffolds them as needed through the reading process, and prepares them to respond to what they have read.

2. "" that help students monitor their own comprehension as they read (using graphic features, visualizing, self questioning, paraphrasing, clarifying, predicting, summarizing, rereading, adjusting reading rate based on text difficulty, note taking)

18

competency 13- understand how to facilitate reading comprehension by providing instruction that prepares students for the reading task, scaffolds them as needed through the reading process, and prepares them to respond to what they have read.

3. "" for supporting students comprehension after reading (discussing, summarizing, retelling, sharing reactions, making text to self, text to text, and text to world connections; creating pictures, semantic maps, Venn diagrams, and other visual graphic representations of text meanings)

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competency 13- understand how to facilitate reading comprehension by providing instruction that prepares students for the reading task, scaffolds them as needed through the reading process, and prepares them to respond to what they have read.

4. " " for promoting students development of listening comprehension skills and helping students transfer comprehension strategies from oral lang. to written lang. (through the use of teacher think alouds and modeling)

20

competency 13- understand how to facilitate reading comprehension by providing instruction that prepares students for the reading task, scaffolds them as needed through the reading process, and prepares them to respond to what they have read.

5. demonstrate knowledge of hot to address the full range of learners in the classroom with respect to facilitating their reading comprehension, including developing their use of comprehension strategies (universal access)

21

competency 13- understand how to facilitate reading comprehension by providing instruction that prepares students for the reading task, scaffolds them as needed through the reading process, and prepares them to respond to what they have read.

5. examples:
-providing diff. comprehension instruction to address the needs to struggling readers and students with reading difficulties or disabilities (as needed, focusing on building word analysis skills, fluency, vocabulary, academic lang., and background knowledge to support comprehension; reteaching comprehension strategies and skills that are lacking; using a variety of concrete examples to explain concepts or task ;providing addtl. practice applying comprehension strategies and skills; as need, providing access to grade level texts through oral presentations, such as reading a text aloud to students and then discussing it with them)

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competency 13- understand how to facilitate reading comprehension by providing instruction that prepares students for the reading task, scaffolds them as needed through the reading process, and prepares them to respond to what they have read.

5. examples
- "" to support students with special needs (focusing on building foundational knowledge and skills in word analysis, fluency, vocab. academic lang., and background knowledge; providing practice with questions at diff. levels of comprehension; using a variety of concrete examples to explain a concept or task; reteaching comprehension skills and strategies that are lacking; providing addtl practice with a variety of texts; as needed, providing access to grade level texts through oral presentation, such as reading a text aloud to students and then discussing it with them.)

23

competency 13- understand how to facilitate reading comprehension by providing instruction that prepares students for the reading task, scaffolds them as needed through the reading process, and prepares them to respond to what they have read.

5 examples;
-"" to address the needs of EL (capitalizing on transfer or comprehension strategies form the primary lang. explicitly teaching comprehension strategies that are lacking)
-"" to address the needs of advanced learners (increasing the pace/ and complexity of instruction, using more advanced and multiple texts, building on and extending current skills and strategies, extending the depth and breadth of all assignments)

24

competency 13- understand how to facilitate reading comprehension by providing instruction that prepares students for the reading task, scaffolds them as needed through the reading process, and prepares them to respond to what they have read.

6. demonstrate knowledge and ability in assessment (entry level assessment , monitoring of progress, and summative assessment) with respect to reading comprehension, including students' use of comprehension strategies.

25

competency 13- understand how to facilitate reading comprehension by providing instruction that prepares students for the reading task, scaffolds them as needed through the reading process, and prepares them to respond to what they have read.

6 examples:
a. demonstrating ability to describe and use appropriate formal and informal assessments to determine student's comprehension and use of comprehension strategies for diff. assessment purposes (entry level assessment, monitoring of progress, and summative assessment)

26

competency 13- understand how to facilitate reading comprehension by providing instruction that prepares students for the reading task, scaffolds them as needed through the reading process, and prepares them to respond to what they have read.

6 EXAMPLES
b. demonstrating ability to analyze and interpret results from these assessments
c. demonstrating ability to use the results of assessment to plan effective comprehension instruction and interventions, adjust instruction and interventions to meet the identified needs of students and ultimately determine whether relevant standards have been met.

27

competency 13- questions of review
13.1- What are comprehension strategies? How should these strategies be taught?

- comprehension strategies are activities that we use to gain meaning or understating from the text and to clarify text.
-these include strategies such as:
a. reread, retell, self monitor, and reorganize text (outline, note taking, summarize), predict answers and generate questions; compare and contrast; use graphic and semantic organizers; monitor comprehension ; recognize story structure ; use prior knowledge and visualization.

28

competency 13- questions of review
13.1- What are comprehension strategies? How should these strategies be taught?

to teach these strategies, the teacher should do the following:
1. assess student understanding of the strategy
2. plan instruction to meet identified needs
3. include in the plan instructional strategies for direct instruction, modeling, guided practice, and independent practice. in addition, the plan should include possible resources and materials to be used in instruction and practice.
4. instruct students using direct instructions and modeling
5. provide practice in both guided and independent settings.
6. assess to monitor for mastery of skills.

29

competency 14: understand how to promote students comprehension and analysis of narrative/ literary texts and their development of literary response skills

1. demonstrate knowledge of explicit instructional strategies for helping students recognize the organizational structure and key characteristics of major literary genres, including poetry (ballad, lyric, couplet, epic, sonnet, ) drama, and prose (short story , novel, myth, legend, biography autobiography, historical fiction, fantasy.)

30

competency 14: understand how to promote students comprehension and analysis of narrative/ literary texts and their development of literary response skills

2. demonstrate knowledge of the elements of story grammar( character, plot, setting, theme) and other key elements of narrative/ literary texts (mood, tone, point of view, voice) and systematic, explicitly instruction in these elements.

31

competency 14: understand how to promote students comprehension and analysis of narrative/ literary texts and their development of literary response skills

3. demonstrate knowledge of research - based, systematic, explicit instruction in narrative analysis and literary criticism, including explicit instructional strategies for helping students analyze and respond to narrative and literary texts.

32

competency 14: understand how to promote students comprehension and analysis of narrative/ literary texts and their development of literary response skills

3. examples:
- identifying the structural elements of a plot and evaluating their logic and credibility
-comparing and contrasting the motivations and reactions of characters
-evaluating the relevance of the setting
-identifying recurring themes
-identifying elements of a writer's style including the function and effect of an author's use of figurative lang. (simile, metaphor, hyperbole, personification) and other literary devices (imagery, symbolism, irony, and foreshadowing)

33

competency 14: understand how to promote students comprehension and analysis of narrative/ literary texts and their development of literary response skills

4. demonstrate knowledge of expliciti oral lang. acitivties (literature circles, questioning the author, think pair share) that develop and reinforce students' comprehension of narrative and literary texts and their skills in narrative analysis and literary criticism.
5. "" writing analysis (literary response journals, summaries, character analyses) that develop and reinforce students' comprehension of narrative/ literary texts and their skills in narrative analysis and literary criticism.

34

competency 14: understand how to promote students comprehension and analysis of narrative/ literary texts and their development of literary response skills

6. "" of how to address the full range of learners in the classroom with respect to their comprehension and analysis of narrative/literary texts and their development of literary response skills

35

competency 14: understand how to promote students comprehension and analysis of narrative/ literary texts and their development of literary response skills

6. examples:
-providing diff. instruction in these areas of reading to address the needs of:
1. struggling readers and students with reading difficulties or disabilities (focusing on key elements of story grammar; creating and using story maps; focusing on key comprehension strategies and skills; reteaching strategies and skills that are lacking; using a variety of concrete examples to explain a concept or task; providing addtl. practice; as needed providing access to grade level texts through oral presentation; such as reading a text aloud to students and then discussing it with them.

36

competency 14: understand how to promote students comprehension and analysis of narrative/ literary texts and their development of literary response skills

6. examples:
-""
2.students with SN(focusing on key elements of story grammar; creating and using story maps; using a variety of concrete examples to explain a concept or task; focusing on key skills and strategies; reteaching skills and strategies that are lacking; providing addtl. practice with narrative / literary texts; as needed providing access to grade level texts through oral presentation , such as reading a text aloud to students and then discussing it with them.

37

competency 14: understand how to promote students comprehension and analysis of narrative/ literary texts and their development of literary response skills

6 examples;
-'''
3. EL and speakers of non standard English (clarifying the cultural context of a text, as needed; Preteaching the key vocab.)

38

competency 14: understand how to promote students comprehension and analysis of narrative/ literary texts and their development of literary response skills

6 examples:
-'' ''
4. Advanced learners( using more advanced and or multiple texts; building on and extending current knowledge, skills, and strategies; extending the depth and breadth of the assignments. )

39

competency 14: understand how to promote students comprehension and analysis of narrative/ literary texts and their development of literary response skills

7. demonstrate knowledge and ability in assessment (entry level assessment, monitoring of progress, summative assessment) with respect to comprehension and analysis of narrative and literary texts and development of literary response skills.

40

competency 14: understand how to promote students comprehension and analysis of narrative/ literary texts and their development of literary response skills

7 examples:
-demonstrating ability to describe and use approp. formal and informal assessments in these areas of reading for diff. assessment purposes (entry level assessment, monitoring of progress, and summative assessment)
-demonstrating ability to analyze and interpret results form these assessments
-demonstrating ability to use the results of assessments to plan effective instruction and interventions with respect to comprehension and analysis of narrative /literary texts and development of literary response skills, adjust instruction and interventions to meet the identified needs of students, and ultimately determine whether relevant standards have been met.

41

competency 14: Questions to review:
14.1 How can a teacher teach elements of literary analysis and criticism?

- the teacher can assess students knowledge of elements of literary analysis and criticism, such as historical fiction, biographies, autobiographies, poetry, plays, realistic fiction, multicultural literature, fact and fantasy.
- using the data form the assessment, the teacher can plan direct instruction, modeling, guided practice, and independent practice

42

competency 14: Questions to review:
14.1 How can a teacher teach elements of literary analysis and criticism?

- the teacher can plan resources, materials and students groupings to use in instruction, which will assist in meeting identified students needs and interests, elements of literary analysis and criticism include such elements as analyzing the use of figurative lang., genre, story elements, mood, theme, and time period.
-instruction in elements of literary analysis should be direct instruction, teacher modeling and guided practice.

43

competency 14: Questions to review:
14.2 How can a teacher assist students in making connections and responding to literature?

- the teacher can engage students in reading or listening to high quality literature
-students should be engaged in activities and strategies to clarify and understand text
- students responses to text, linked with prior knowledge , might including such activities as reading logs, literature circles, readers theatre, essays, cross curricular discussions and writings.
-engaging students in response activities, which include book reports, identifying main problem in the story, semantic webs, trait charts, and analyzing diff. types of literature.

44

competency 15: Understand how to promote students comprehension of expository/informational texts and their development of study skills and research skills.

1. demonstrate knowledge of explicit instructional strategies for helping students recognize key characteristics of various expository/informational materials (textbook, news article, consumer manual, research report, website)

45

competency 15: Understand how to promote students comprehension of expository/informational texts and their development of study skills and research skills.

2. demonstrate knowledge of explicit instructional strategies comprehension of expository/informational texts at the word, sentence, paragraph, and text levels by helping them understand common text structures used in these text (chronological, cause/effect comparison/contrast, problem/solution) and helping them recognize and attend to common transition words and other features (topic sentence, concluding sentence) assoc. with diff. text structures

46

competency 15: Understand how to promote students comprehension of expository/informational texts and their development of study skills and research skills.

3. demonstrate knowledge of explicit instructional strategies for helping students recognize and use a variety of text features that help support comprehension of expository/informational texts.

47

competency 15: Understand how to promote students comprehension of expository/informational texts and their development of study skills and research skills.

3 examples:
-organizational/ explanatory features (table of contents, index, glossary)
-typographic features (italics, boldfacing, underlining, color coding)
-graphic features (charts, maps, diagrams and illustrations)

48

competency 15: Understand how to promote students comprehension of expository/informational texts and their development of study skills and research skills.

4. demonstrate knowledge of explicit instructional strategies for promoting students'' comprehension of expository/informational texts.

49

competency 15: Understand how to promote students comprehension of expository/informational texts and their development of study skills and research skills.

4. examples:
- evaluating the unity, logic, internal consistency, and structural patterns of a text
-analyzing the development of an author's argument, point of view, or perspective.
-generalizing the knowledge learned from texts to other areas of learning.
-identifying similarities and differences between texts

50

competency 15: Understand how to promote students comprehension of expository/informational texts and their development of study skills and research skills.

5. demonstrate knowledge of explicit oral lang. activities that develop and reinforce comprehension of expository/informational texts and related vocab., academic lang., and background knowledge (introducing and explaining key vocab. prior to reading, conducting oral preview-review of text content, engaging students in oral paraphrasing and summarizing of texts)

51

competency 15: Understand how to promote students comprehension of expository/informational texts and their development of study skills and research skills.

6. demonstrate knowledge of explicit writing activities that develop and reinforce comprehension of expository /informational text (summarizing, paraphrasing, developing graphic organizers)

52

competency 15: Understand how to promote students comprehension of expository/informational texts and their development of study skills and research skills.

7. demonstrate knowledge of explicitly instructional strategies for promoting students' development of study skills (outlining, note taking, ) and ability to locate, retrieve, and retain info. from reference materials and expository / informational texts

53

competency 15: Understand how to promote students comprehension of expository/informational texts and their development of study skills and research skills.

8. demonstrate knowledge of explicitly instructional strategies for promoting students' development of research skills (identifying research topics, asking and evaluating questions, developing an academic argument, using multiple sources when conducting research, suing technology to manage information, paraphrasing information.

54

competency 15: Understand how to promote students comprehension of expository/informational texts and their development of study skills and research skills.

9. demonstrate knowledge of how to address the full range of learners in the classroom with respect to their comprehension of expository/informational texts and their development of study skills and research skills.

55

competency 15: Understand how to promote students comprehension of expository/informational texts and their development of study skills and research skills.

9. examples:
-providing differentiate instruction in these areas of reading to address the needs of:
a. --- struggling readers and students with reading difficulties or disabilities (focusing on key content, skills and strategies; reteaching content area vocab., lang. structures, and background knowledge that are lacking, using a variety of concrete examples to explain a concept or task; providing addtl. practice as needed, providing access to grade level text through oral presentation such as reading a text aloud to students and then discussing it with them.

56

competency 15: Understand how to promote students comprehension of expository/informational texts and their development of study skills and research skills.

9. examples:
-providing differentiate instruction in these areas of reading to address the needs of:
b.--- special needs (building background knowledge; focusing on key content area vocab.; focusing on the key ideas in a text, using a variety of concrete examples to explain a new concept or task; presenting new concepts and vocab. using visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile techniques; reteaching skills and concepts that are lacking; providing addtl. practice with approp. level expository/informational texts; as needed; providing access to grade level texts through oral presentation, such as reading a text aloud to students and then discussing it with them.)

57

competency 15: Understand how to promote students comprehension of expository/informational texts and their development of study skills and research skills.

9. examples:
-providing differentiate instruction in these areas of reading to address the needs of:
c.-- ELs (using explicit modeling and scaffolding strategies)
d.-- advanced learners (increase the pace and complexity of instruction, using more advance or multiple texts, building on current knowledge, skills, and abilities and extending the depth and breadth of assignments.

58

competency 15: questions for review:
15.1 How can the teacher teach reading strategies for students to gain meaning from text in a variety of ways?

- reading for diff. purposes to gain meaning and clarify that text can be taught in a direct manner, modeled by the teacher and practiced by students in guided practice activities.
- these strategies can be applied and practiced across curricular areas and include such skills browsing, previewing, skimming and in-depth reading.

59

competency 15: questions for review:
15.2. What does a teacher need to know to teach content area literacy/comprehension ?

- assessment strategies to determine student comprehension to content areas. assessment could be informal observation and discussion n of student reading or formal tests created by the teacher or pulled form the text.
-recognition and understanding of diff. types of texts and purposes for reading. this includes the structures of narrative, expository and poetic text.

60

competency 15: questions for review:
15.2. What does a teacher need to know to teach content area literacy/comprehension ?

-provide examples and explicitly teach common text structures- cause and effect for example
-model and teach reading strategies for diff. reading purpose (skimming, scanning and in depth reading
-study skills to explicitly teach students how to:
1. locate and retrieve info. from reference sources and content area text
2. retain and us information for text taking

61

competency 15: questions for review:
15.3- How does a teacher teach study and research skills?

-assess student knowledge of study skill to be assessed. use data to plan instruction.
-plan instruction to meet identified need, such as research skills, using reference materials, organizing information and relating information to content area text and tests. planning should include curriculum elements such as direct instruction strategies, teacher modeling, materials, and resources, technology, scheduling, and students activities.

62

competency 15: questions for review:
15.3- How does a teacher teach study and research skills?

-instruction should include direct instruction supported by teacher modeling and guided practice
-practice should include locating and retrieving information from a variety of sources including the internet, reference sources, and texts. in addition, students practice using and retaining info. for test taking.

63

competency 15: questions for review:
15.4 How can a teacher differentiate instruction in reading comprehension for struggling readers, students with special needs, EL, and advanced learners?

-for struggling readers: focus on content, skills, and strategies, reteach content area vocab., lang. structures, and background knowledge that are lacking; use a variety of concrete examples to explain a concept or task; provide addtl. practice, as needed provide access to grade level texts through oral presentation such as reading a text aloud to students and then discussing it with them

64

competency 15: questions for review:
15.4 How can a teacher differentiate instruction in reading comprehension for struggling readers, students with special needs, EL, and advanced learners?

- for students with SN build background knowledge; focus on key content area vocab; focus on the key ideas in a text; use a variety of concrete examples to explain a new concept or task; present new concepts and vocab. using visual, auditory, kinesthetic and tactile techniques, reteach skills and concepts that are lacking; provide addtl. practice with approp. level expository / informational texts, as needed provide access to grade level texts through oral presentation such as reading a text aloud to students and then discuss it with them.

65

competency 15: questions for review:
15.4 How can a teacher differentiate instruction in reading comprehension for struggling readers, students with special needs, EL, and advanced learners?

- for EL- use explicit modeling and scaffolding strategies

-- for advanced learners : increase the pace or complexity of instruction; use more advanced or multiple texts, build on and extend current knowledge, skills, and abilities, extend the depth and breadth of assignments.