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What is doping

Definition: the use and abuse of
performance enhancing
substances in elite sport.


Motivation for use of doping

v To enhance performance
v Higher strength, endurance, recovery, alertness,
aggression, calmness, drive to win
v Lower reaction time, fatigue, anxiety, muscle tremor
v Financial incentives – prize, bonuses, endorsements,
v Belief that others are doing it too
v Coping with pain and injury rehabilitation
v Weight control
v Hide use of other drugs


Why atheletes wouls want to use diuretics

To dilute the drugs they are taking in urine sample

or to reduce weight


what does of caffeine a day is not harmful

200 to 300 mg a day


what is caffeine ( chemical)

A Methylxanthine: purine metabolites


how caffeine functions (receptor)


Exerts effects by:
v Increase in cAMP by inhibition of phosphodiesterase
v Translocation of Calcium for more neuro-muscular availabilityb


effects of caffeine, why athletes would want to take it, is it illegal, side effects

v Enhanced nervous (mood) and cardiovascular functions
v Beneficial most in endurance events, such as cycling
v Is banned by IOC and NCAA in large doses
v Legal limit: 15 μg/ml. Equal to 6-8 cups of coffee at one
sitting, with testing within 2-3 hours
v Side effects: Insomnia, irritability, nervousness,
tachycardia, arrythmias and possibly death!


what are beta blockers

v Medically used Reduce blood pressure,
Migraine headaches, Heart arrhythmia,
Alcohol withdrawal and Anxiety


why would atheletes would want to use beta blockers?

vDuring heightened arousal epi/norepinephrine is produced (adrenal
vHeart rate and blood pressure are increased
vBeta Blockers block the beta receptor in cardiac muscles, thus reduce anxiety, jitters, and slows the heart rate.

vCommonly used in sports that require a steady hand.


Is growth hormone allowed in sports



How can you stimulate GH secretion

vIndirect (eg. Stimulate GH axis by GHRH, vasopressin)
vDirect (e.g. Inject recombinant GH or IGF)


Side effects of human growth hormone

Acromegaly (may be irreversible)
v Peripheral Neuropathy
v Coronary Artery Disease and Cardiomyopathy
v Diabetes, Hypothyroidism, arthritis


what does erythropoietin

vHormone released by the kidneys in response to low
Hematocrit (blood cell volume)
vStimulates RBC production from bone marrow
vCan increase hematocrit in renal patients by up to 35%,
lasting up to 7 months
vUsed in treatment of anemia


What athletes might abuse erythropoietin

vAbused by endurance endurance athletes to increase
oxygen carrying capacity by daily injection of EPO


what can athelets do to increase blood volume without EPO

Instead of taking EPO, some athletes re-transfuse their
own blood 1-7 d before an event (e.g. Tour de France)


what is induced erythrocyhtemia

increases Hb following
reinfusion of an athlete’s blood


Can you do blood reinfusion in sports?



What is gene doping

It was suspected that some athletes during 2008 Olympics
were injecting plasmids expressing various genes e.g. GH,
IGF into muscle fibers (2008) – no test available