DPD Amir Sam 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in DPD Amir Sam 3 Deck (91)
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1

What may you see on general inspection around the patient in a GI exam?

Jaundice
Pallor
Medication
Vomit bowls
Stoma bags

2

What may you see in on general inspection of the patient in a GI exam? (ABCDEFGHIJKL)

Asterixis
Bruising
Clubbing
Dupuytren's contracture
Erythema (palmar)
Fetor
Gynaecomastia
Hair loss
Icterus
Jaundice
Koilonychia
Leukonychia

3

What should you look for in the forearms in a GI exam and what do they indicate?

AV fistulae- renal impairment
Excoriation- pruritus: cholestasis

4

What may gum hypertrophy indicate?

Cyclosporine after renal transplant

5

What happens when you press and let go of a spider naevi?

Goes pale, will refill from centre

6

What should you look for on the abdomen in a GI exam?

Caput medusae
Distension
Scars

7

What does a left subcostal scar indicate?

Biliary surgery

8

What does a Mercedes-Benz scar indicate?

Liver transplant

9

What does a midline laparotomy scar indicate?

GI/major abdo surgery

10

What does a J shaped scar indicate?

Renal transplant

11

What does a McBurney's scar indicate?

Appendectomy

12

What are the causes of hepatomegaly?

Cancer
Cirrhosis (early, usually alcoholic; chronic cirrhosis has small liver)
Cardio:
-congestive cardiac failure
-constrictive pericarditis

Infiltration
-fatty, haemochromatosis, amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, lymphoproliferative disease

13

What are the causes of amyloidosis?

Chronic infection
Chronic inflammation
Malignancy

14

What are the causes of liver disease?

Alcohol
Autoimmune
Drugs
Viral
Biliary Dx

15

What should you ask when suspecting alcoholic hepatitis?

How much alcohol they drink

16

What should you ask when suspecting autoimmune hepatitis?

Whether they/their family have autoimmune conditions

17

What should you ask when suspecting viral hepatitis?

Sexual activity
IVDU
Transfusions
Poor hygiene/recent travel (Hep A)

18

What should you ask when suspecting drug-induced hepatitis?

Are they on any new medication (including OTC)

19

What associated symptoms should you ask for in a GI exam?

Head to toe
Nausea and vomiting
Difficulty swallowing
Abdo pain
Bowel habits
Stool and urine
FLAWS

20

what are the causes of splenomegaly?

Hypertension (portal)
Haemotological
Infection
Inflammation

21

What are the causes of abdominal distension?

Flatus
Fluid
Faeces
Foetus
Fat

22

What is the likely cause of a flatus-induced abdominal distension?

Bowel obstruction

23

What is the likely cause of a fluid-induced abdominal distension?

Ascites

24

How should you classify GI bleed?

Upper- dark malaena
Lower- bright red

25

How is jaundice classified?

Pre-hepatic
Hepatic
Post-hepatic

26

75M
Epigastric and back pain
HR 130 BP 80/50
What is the likely diagnosis?

A. Peptic ulcer
B. Pancreatitis
C. Gastritis
D. GORD
E. Ruptured abdominal aneurysm

E. Ruptured abdominal aneurysm

Signs of hypovolaemic shock and epigastric pain radiating to the back.
The epigastric-back pain can be indicative of pancreatitis however you would not expect to see signs of hypovolaemic shock.
A peptic ulcer could have perforated, causing internal bleeding, hence tachcardia and hypotension, however you would have more prompts within the question ie. haematemesis, malaena and peritonism.

27

What are the classifications of abdominal pain?

Colicky vs constant
Location

28

What are the medical causes of abdominal pain?

Inflammatory bowel disease
Irritable bowel syndrome
MI (can present as epigastric pain)
Basal pneumonia (can present as upper quadrant pain)

29

What are the causes of epigastric pain?

GORD
Peptic ulcer disease
Pancreatitis
Gastritis (more likely to be diffuse)
Abdominal aortic aneurysm
Boerhaave's
MI

30

What may indicate GORD over other causes of epigastric pain?

Gets better with antacids