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Flashcards in DPT 5000 Quiz 1 Deck (39):
1

Elements of the Patient/Client Management Model

Examination --> gather data
Evaluation --> analyze the date
Diagnosis --> PT DIAGNOSIS
Prognosis/ Plan of Care --> determine pt's potential goals
Intervention -->
Outcomes --> Results/ Discharge pt

2

Functions of Bone

1. Support
2. Protection of Vital Organs
3. Mechanical Leverage
4. Storage for Minerals (calcium)
5. New blood cell formation - bone marrow

3

Cortical Bone; % of skeleton; Constructed with what two structures?

(Compact or Dense Bone)
80% of Skeleton
Lamellae w/ Haversion canal
Canaliculi (Volkmann's)
Thicker in the middle of long bones for added strength

4

Lamellae

Collagen fibers forming concentric rings

5

Haversion canal

Core center of lamellae, contain blood vessels and nerves (need to know for healing) --> allows for circulation

6

Canaliculi (Volkmann's)

Tiny canals within lamellae for diffusion of nutrients and waste to and from haversian canals

7

Cortical Bone- X-ray Images

Treatments (Cortical Screws)

X-ray shows more dense white--> representing thicker bone

Orthopaedic surgeons try to anchor screws to cortical bone (cortical screws). Goes through both side of hard bone.

When bone is broken and treated with rod implant --> bone is weight bearing!

8

Medullary Canal

- Manufacturing of RBCs in children, contains yellow fatty marrow in adults.
- Ream out and place metal rods for fixation of fxs & amp; joint replacement stems
- X-ray examples: femur fx, tibia fx, Total Hip Replac, THA w/ fx from inserting stem

9

Periosteum

Fibrous membranes that cover bones, (pain) nerves, and blood vessels pass thru.
- Contains pain nerves so trauma to bone is very painful.
- This is what you palpate (tibia, elbow, skull, malleoli)
-Fx through periosteum very painful. Thicker in children, so fractures are sometimes less serious than adults.

10

Cancellous (spongy) Bone; % skeleton; Structure

20% of skeleton
Lamallae deposited in parallel (vs concentric rings)--> called Trabeculae- irregular arranged w/ lattice work or woven mesh.
Bone marrow contained between layers of mesh. Thin layers, but show layers of bone stress (hip x-ray)

11

Where is cancellous bone located and what areas have the highest density.

Found @ end of long bones, near joint.
Highest Density: Proximal femur, distal radius, vertebral body.

These are often the sites of osteoporosis fracture

12

Cancellous bone fractures

Bone becomes compacted w/ fxs and can be more difficult to manage.
Impaction or compression fxs.
X-ray examples: tibial plateau fx, femoral neck fx, thoracic vertebrae compression fx, humeral head dislocation

13

Compression Fractures

Cancellous bone is susceptible to these. (Rather than snapping fractures)
- WAY more difficult to manage
- long time b4 weight bearing

14

Osteoarthritis Breaks
(most common where?)

Hip, Wrist, Spine

15

Use of Medullary Canal for treating fractures

- Ream out and place metal rods for fixation of fxs & joint replacement stems
-Old method of fx management: traction & bedrest for 3mo.
- New method: rod fixation and discharge in 2-3 days.

16

Bone Parts

1. Diaphysis
2. Epiphysis
3. Epiphyseal Plate

17

Diaphysis

Long axis of bone. Compact bone surrounding medullary canal.
In adults, canal contains marrow and yellow fat which can break off and enter the veins in the form of globules.
--> which lodges in arteries of lung forming a pulmonary emboli (fat vs blood clot)

18

Epiphysis

- bone ends. Thin layer of compact bone surrounding interior of spongy bone.

19

Epiphyseal Plate

Growth plate.

AKA Salter-Harris plate

20

Bone Growth

Diaphysis= primary development growth
Epiphyseal plate= secondary growth centers that fuse @ end of puberty and represents end of growing

21

Epiphyseal Plate fractures vs. non-fracture

X-ray of open epiphysis can be mistaken for fractures
Salter-Harris fracture- through growth plate must be managed properly or it will stunt growth of that bone

22

Articular Cartilage

And what disease involves this cartilage?

Cushions bone ends and absorbs stress @ joints.

Degenerative joint disease (DJD) is wearing away of cartilage.

23

What is a PTA

Physical THERAPIST assistant

24

Components of preferred PT-PTA team that promote efficient, high faulty patient/cline care.

1. Pt needs suppressed team needs
2. Ea. professional being knowledgeable of rules that apply to one's own role and the other's role within the team.
3. Ability to recognize when the team isn't working.
4. Acknowledging tendencies, preferences and pet peeves.

25

PT/ PTA Relationship

Roles

-PT directs PTA to perform selected interventions
-PT provides ongoing supervision as needed and mandated by law
-PTA performs tasks w/ patient
PTA documents performance/ response
PT- retains ultimate responsibility
Both responsible for following state and APTA regulations

26

What should be considered when determine PT/PTA involvement?

1. Predictability of consequences
2. Stability of situation
3. Observability of basic indicators
4. Ambiguity of basic indicators
5. Criticality of results
6. Purpose of dimension
Instrumental or Expressive functions of tasks?
7. Locale dimension

27

Explain the purpose of the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice

- It describes the PT practice (who PTs are and what their role is in healthcare)
- Explains the settings in which we work
- Standardizes Terminology
- It reviews our education

28

Define the primary components of the ICF Model

"Health Condition" (Disorder/Disease/Pathology/Condition)
Diabetes, pregnancy, fracture, etc.

"Functioning and Disability"
Body Functions and Structures Impairments
Activities Limitations
Participation Restrictions

"Contextual Factors"
Personal Factors
Environmental Factors

29

Global purpose(s) for using ICF model terminology in PT practice?

It standardizes the terminology that we use so that it is clear and understandable across disciplines.

30

Elements of the Patient/Client Management Model

PT Examination- Pt history, previous notes, gather data via pt interview/tests
Evaluation- analyze data
PT diagnosis- impairments, activity limitations
Prognosis/ Plan of Care- identify patient's potential goals
Intervention-
Outcomes- Results/ Discharge patient

31

Data to be gathered during a Patient History

Activities and Participation
Current Condition(s)
Family Hx
General Demographics
General Health Status
Growth and Development
Living Environment
Medical/Surgical Hx
Medications
Other clinical tests?
Review of Systems
Social/Health Habits
Social History

32

Primary Care

1st line of care (sees patient 1st)
Family Physician, Family Dentist

33

Secondary Care

Referred care
Pharmacist (who is referred to)

34

Tertiary Care

Specialized Team
Burn-unit team, transplant team

35

Primary Prevention

Screenings; blood pressure, weight, scoliosis

36

Secondary Prevention

Preventing further injury when a patient already has a health issue (splinting a fx, providing medication for strep throat)

37

Tertiary Prevention

optimizes what the patient can do, environment/equipment modifications- modify living
Slow progression (ex. Cerebral Palsy)

38

What is included in the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice

- What is a PT and what is their role in healthcare
- The general accepted elements of patient/client management provided by PTs
- Types of tests and measures used by PTs as part of examination for specific client/patient diagnostic groups
- Types of interventions provided by PTs, and what the anticipated goals are of these interventions
- What the desired outcome is of patient/client management provided by PTs

39

Trabeculae

Irregular arranged w/ lattice work or woven mesh.