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1

2 DIVISIONS  of  Human Skeleton   

1.  AXIAL SKELETON

and

2.  APPENDICULAR SKELETON

2

Bones of the   AXIS

Bones of the: 

  • Skull,
  • Spine 
  • Chest 
  • Hyoid Bone

3

AXIAL SKELETON

How Many Bones?

80 Bones

4

APPENDICULAR  -  EXTREMITIES

  • UPPER EXTREMITIES

Shoulder  -  Pectoral  -  Girdles  -  Arms  -  Wrists & Hands

 

  • LOWER EXTREMITIES ​

Hip  -  Pelvic  -  Girdles  -  Legs  -  Ankles   &  Feet

5

SKULL  -  CRANIAL CAVITY

HOW MANY BONES ?

8

6

BONES IN THE MIDDLE OF EAR

HOW MANY ?

6 BONES  -  3 IN EACH EAR

7

FONTANELLES

  • SOFT SPOT ON BABY’S HEAD.
  •  
  • 6 FONTANELS, or areas where Ossification is incomplete at birth.
  •  
  • The fontanels EVENTUALLY FUSE before a BABY IS  2-3  YEARS old.

8

What Are The Different    

FONTANELLE'S   &.  FUNCTIONS

 

ANTERIOR FONTANELLE:   LAST TO FUSE

  • Frontal. -  Sagittal. -  and -  Coronal Sutures

Occipital   Fontanelle:

  • Lambdoid  - and -  Sagittal Sutures

Sphenoidal   Fontanelles:

  • Squamous  - and -  Coronal Sutures

Mastoid   Fontanelles:

  • Squamous   - and -  Lambdoid Sutures

9

SINUSES

  • Sinuses are Spaces or Cavities within some of the cranial bones.

10

4 Pairs of SINUSES

referred to:   Paranasal Sinuses

  1. FRONTAL,
  2. MAXILLARY
  3. SPHENOID
  4. ETHMOID BONES

11

FRONTAL CRANIAL BONE:    Contains

FRONTAL SINUSES

12

Occipital  Bone

Forms the Posterior and Inferior Surfaces of the Cranium.

 

1.  OCCIPITAL CONDYLES:    

  • Articulate with Neck

 

2.  FORAMEN MAGNUM:

  • Connects Cranial and Spinal Cavities

13

TEMPORAL BONE

  • Part of Lateral Walls of Cranium  and  Zygomatic Arches
  •  
  • Articulate with Mandible
  •  
  • Surround  and  Protects Inner Ear

14

SPHENOID

  • Unites Cranial  and  Facial Bones

 

  • Contains  SPHENOIDAL SINUSES

15

Ethmoid Bone

Roof of the Nasal Cavity

16

Palatine Bones

Form the   Posterior Portion   of the   Hard Palate.

17

THE MAXILLAE

  • Form Upper Jaw  and  Hard Palate

 

  • Contain MAXILLARY SINUSES   (largest sinuses)

18

VERTEBRAL COLUMN

  • Protects the Spinal Cord
  •  
  • 26 Bones:   Supports the Head and Body 
  •  
  • 24 Vertebrae:    the SACRUM,   and the   COCCYX

19

VERTEBRAL COLUMN

Consists Of ?

The Vertebral Column   consists of a series of   Separate Bones,  or  Vertebrae, Connected   in such a way that they form a   Fexible Curved Rod.

20

VERTEBRAE SMALL BONE

SPINOUS PROCESS (or spine),   its TWO  TRANSVERSE PROCESSES, and the Hole In Its Center, VVcalled the VERTEBRAL FORAMEN.

21

2 CURVES  of the VERTEBRAL

THORACIC   and    SACRAL CURVES

• Are called Primary Curves

• Or Accommodation Curves   (accommodate internal organs)

22

LUMBAR   and    CERVICAL CURVES

  • Are called Secondary Curves    (appear after birth)
  •  
  • Also called Compensation Curves

23

SPINAL CURVATURE:

CONVEX CURE:  KYPHITIC

  • Primary Curve of spine is C in Babies.

 

  • Gradually Secondary Curves develop in the Cervical and Lumbar regions; Growing Stops.

 

Kyphotic Curve - Thoracic Dpine:   Balance   and   Shock Absorption

24

SCOLIOSIS

Defined as a Spinal Curvature

25

COMMON PARTS  OF THE  SPINAL CORD

  1.   BODY
  2.   ARCH

26

Cervical Vertebrae   LOCATION:

 ( C1 – C7 )

27

Thoracic Vertebrae   LOCATION:

 ( T1 – T12 )

28

Thoracic vertebrae   LOCATION:

 ( T1 – T12 )

29

Lumbar vertebrae   LOCATION:

 ( L1 – L5 )

30

How many  RIBS     DO WE HAVE?

 

12 RIBS

31

TRUE  &  FALSE   RIBS

1-7 RIBS are TRUE Ribs

8-12  are  FALSE.

32

STERNUM:     3 Parts of the Sternum

  • MANUBRIUM
  •  
  • STERNAL BODY
  •  
  • XIPHOID process

33

APPENDICULAR SKELETON

Allows us to Move and Manipulate Objects

 

Includes ALL Bones   besides   Axial Skeleton

 • The LIMBS

• The supportive GIRDLES

34

PECTORAL  -  GIRDLE

Connects the Arms to the body

  • TWO CLAVICLES
  • TWO SCAPULAE

35

CLAVICLES

ALSO CALLED THE:   Collarbones

36

SCAPULAE

Also called Shoulder Blades

37

HUMERUS

  • Also called the Arm:
  •  
  • is the Long Bone of the Arm and the 2nd Longest Bone in the body.
  •  
  • Attached at the Concave GLENOID CAVITY of the scapula at its Proximal End

38

WRISTHAND BONES:     Name   and   Count

8     Bones:  CARPAL   or   Wrist bones,

5     Bones:  METACARPAL  bones  Palm of the Hand.

14    Bones:  PHALANGESOR FINGER BONES  (3 in all fingers, 2 in the thumb)

27   BONES In All

39

METACARPAL BONES

The 5 Long Bones of the Hand.

40

PHALANGES of the Hands:   HOW MANY BONES

14 Total Finger Bones   –   Pollex.

41

BONES   OF THE   PELVIC GIRDLE

  • ILIUM  -  ISCHIUM  -  PUBIS:  
  •  
  • Hip, or Pelvic Girdle,   connects the legs  to the Trunk.
  •  
  • Pelvic Girdle as a whole consists of  2 Large Coxal Bones (= pelvic bones).
  •  
  • Bones Grow Together to become one bone in an adult

 

42

BONES   OF THE   LOWER LIMBS

-- Femur   (Thigh)

Patella   (Kneecap)

Tibia and fibula   (Leg)

Tarsals   (Ankle)

Metatarsals   (Foot)

Phalanges   (Toes)

43

THE PATELLA

Also called  the  Kneecap

BASE   attaches Quadriceps Femoris.

APEX   attaches Patellar Ligament.

44

THE TIBIA

Also called the   Shinbone.

45

THE FIBULA

Attaches Muscles   of   Feet and Toes.

Foot bones comparable to the Metacarpals and Carpals of the Hand have Slightly Different Names.    They are called   METATARSALS and TARSALS in the foot..

 

--  The Largest Tarsal Bone is the CALCANEUS, or Heel Bone.

46

PHALANGES OF THE FOOT   –   PHALANGES

• 14 Bones TOTAL of the Toe Bones   –   Hallux:

• Big Toe or Great Toe,   2 Phalanges   ( distal, proxima l)

– Other four toes:

• 3 Phalanges (distal, medial, proximal)

47

HematoPoiesis   -   ( RED Marrow )

BLOOD CELL PRODUCTION

 

  • Process  of  Blood Cell Formation.

 

  • PROTECTION - Hard, Bony “BoxesProtect Delicate Structures enclosed within them.

 

  • LEVERAGE  (force of motion) - As muscles contract and shorten, they Pull on Bones and thereby move them.

48

4 Major Types of Bones 

According to Overall Structure

  • Humerus  ------ Arm bone   -  Long
  •  
  • Carpals    -----  Wrist bone  -  Short
  •  
  • Frontal    ------   Skull bone  -  Flat
  •  
  • Vertebrae  - Spinal bones  -  Irregular

49

Diaphysis

  • Shaft — a Hollow Tube Made of Hard, Compact Bone.... Permits Easy Movement.

50

Medullary Cavity

  • HOLLOW Area inside the Diaphysis of a bone…. 

 

  • Contains  “SOFT yellow BONE MARROW”, an Inactive, Fatty Form of Marrow found in the Adult Skeleton

51

Epiphyses

  • Wide Part at Each End  —  Red Bone Marrow   Fills in Small Spaces in the Spongy Bone composing the Epiphyses

52

Articular Cartilage

  • Thin Layer  of  Cartilage Covering  Each Epiphysis. 

 

  • Functions like a   Small Rubber Cushion   over the ends of bones where they Form a Joint

53

Periosteum

Strong Fibrous Membrane   covering long bone everywhere   except  at  joint surfaces.

54

Endosteum

Thin Membrane  that  Lines the Medullary Cavity

55

SPONGY BONE

  • COMPACT BONE appears Solid to the Naked Eye.

 

  • Porous Bone in the End of the Long Bone is called SPONGY BONE or CANCELLOUS BONE.

56

COMPACT  &  SPONGY BONE

Circular and Tube like OSTEON is composed of Calcified Matrix Arranged in Multiple Layers that Resemble the Rings of an Onion.

57

CARTILAGE

Cartilage is Avascular and Bone is Abundantly Vascular.

  •  NOTE:    Cartilage Cells, called chondrocytes

58

HYALINE CARTILAGE

  • Most common type of    Cartilage the Body.....

59

2 TYPES  OF  CARTILAGE

  • ELASTIC CARTILAGE:    Gives Form to the External Ear, the Epiglottis

 

  • FIBROCARTILAGE:         Fibrous cartilage —  is Strong, Rigid.

 

  • Characterized by Abundant Fibrous Elements within the Matrix...  

60

Bone Contains   -   3 Types of Cells

1.   OsteoCytes

2.  OsteoBlasts

3.  OsteoClasts

 

ONLY   2%   of Bone Mass.

 

 

61

OSTEOBLASTS

  • Immature Bone Cells  that  Secrete Matrix Compounds
  •  
  • OsteoGenesis )

62

OSTEOCYTES

FUNCTIONS:

  • Maintain Protein   and   Mineral Content of Matrix
  •  
  • Help Repair Damaged Bone
  •  
  • Do NOT Divide

 

63

OSTEOCLASTS

  • Bone-Dissolving Cells   that   Remove the Hard Calcium Salts   in   Bone Matrix.

64

STRUCTURE  OF   SPONGY BONE

  • Matrix Forms an Open Network of TRABECULAE

 

  • Space between TRABECULAE is filled with RED BONE MARROW.

 

  • HAS BLOOD VESSELS

 

  • FORMS   RED BLOOD CELLS   ( or, HEMATOPOIESIS )

65

BONE DEVELOPMENT

  • Human Bones Grow Until about  AGE 25

 

  • Osteogenesis   -   Bone formation

 

  • Ossification   -   The Process of Replacing Other Tissues with Bone.

66

2 TYPES   OF   BONE GROWTH

  • INTRAMEMBRANOUS:       Bone Forms Directly within MesenChyme.
  •  
  • ENDOCHONDRAL:             Involves Replacement of Cartilage with Bone.

67

INTRAMEMBRANOUS

INTRAMEMBRANOUS  Ossification:  

  • Occurs within the Womb   ( Begins 8th- 9th week ).

68

ENDOCHONDRAL

All Cartilage is Ossified   Except the areas between the Diaphysis (shaft)   and Epiphysis   (end).