What 2 condition are needed to create an infectious dz?
- susceptible host
- challenge organism (agent)
What are the 3 types of Vacs used in the poultry industry?
What are the 6 possible Vax routes of admin?
- In ovo
- Wing web
- Eye drops
What is the standard route for killed agent vaxs?
When used you NOT use an vaccine emulsion?
When it is "broken" → 3 layers w/ the bottom being dark brown or black
How do you test vax emulsions?
- Shake vigoroulsy for 2 min
- Let sit for 5 min
- Observe for seperation
What % of birds get missed when using Killed Vaxs?
10-15% are NOT vaccinated
List the 4 Oil-emulsion Bacterins used in the Poultry industry.
(Killed vaxs→ more reactive vaxs)
- Mycoplasma gallisepticum
- Salmonella enteriditis
Advantages of Killed Vaxs?
- Fewer systemic rxns
- More direct hits
- Doesn't spread to others
- Long lasting, uniform immune response
- Reduces risk of interference when using mulitiple Ags.
Who usually gets killed vaxs?
Disadvantages of Killed Vaxs?
- Increased labor costs → more handling required
- Contaminated needles
- Can get exaggerated tissue rxns
Advantages of Live Vaxs?
- Easy & fast to apply
- Superior→ mucosal immunity
- Longer shelf life
- No skin/mm. rxns
Disadvantages of Live Vaxs?
- Adverse rxns in the respiratory tract
- Require rapid application
- Limited microorganism t½
- Shorter humoral immune response
What type is the Laryngeotracheitis vax?
Marek's dz is a _____ vax. When is it injected?
Live, in ovo vax
Day 1 @ hatchery
How is the Pox Vaccine given?
Wing Web Injection
What 4 things are vaccinated against using a Wing Web Vac?
- Pox virus
- Avian Encephalitis
- P. multocida
- Chick Anemia
When do outbreaks of Fowl Poxs occur in Poultry farms?
Most outbreaks are associated w/ inproper admin of Wing Web vaccines.
What is a Pox "take"?
- Area of swlling 5-10 d after a wing web injection
- + evidence that birds are responding to the vaccine
What % of birds should have "takes"?
When should in ovo vaxs be given for optimal performance?
Vax innoculation must be done btwn 18-19 d of embryo incubation
What 5 dz's are vaccinated for using Eyedrop Vax?
- Live NCD
- Live Infectious Bronchitis
- Infectious Bursal Dz. (IBD)
- TS-11 (MG)
How do you admin Drinking H2O Vaxs?
- Clean H2O lines
- "H2O starve" birds for ~ 2hrs
- Fill lines b4 lights on/lines lowered
- Use approved dye & vax stabilizer
- Flush lines full of vac
- Should last for ~ 30 min
- Run the feeders to increase drinking
4 things that cause a rapid loss of Drinking Water Vax t½.
- High H2O temp.
- Organic matter
Advantages of Spray Vaxs?
- Easiest to admin
- Easy to prepare
- Rapid, mass administration
Disadvantages of Spray Vaxs?
- Excessive dust reduces spray effectiveness
- Low humidity → evaporation of spray droplets
- open-mouth breathing increases virulence
Micron size of Very Coarse Sprays?
Which dz is vaccinated for in this manner?
- 200-300 microns
Micron size of Coarse Sprays?
- 80-100 microns
- young birds
Micron size of Medium Sprays?
- 50-70 microns
- 2nd dary vaxs
Microns of Fine Sprays?
- 20-40 microns
- revaccinating older birds
Adverse Rxns after NCD/Bronchitis Vac?
- Seen 3-5 d. post vax
- "Heating up" → virus becomes less attenuated (& more pathogenic) as it passes through the flock
If you don't maintain your spray vax equipement what can happen?
loss of uniformity of droplet size