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Advanced Social Psychology > Driver Behaviour > Flashcards

Flashcards in Driver Behaviour Deck (36):
1

Percentage of uk deaths as a result of RTAs

0.7%

2

Percentage of RTAs for 16-19 year olds

35% (Uk dept. Transport)

3

Rank of killer that RTA will be (predicted) in 2020

3rd biggest killer (international Red Cross)

4

Common theme differences of risky driving

Age, gender, speed

5

3 main methodologies of driver behaviour

Direct observation, stimulation and self-report

6

Problems with direct observation of risky driving

Investigator effects, accidents statistically infrequent, differences between vehicles

7

Evaluation of stimulation as a method of measuring driving

- high control e.g same setting, same amount of wine glasses
- but not ecologically valid, not risky/ lack of motivational factors like anger

8

Evaluation of self report as a method of measuring driver behaviour

Danger of social desirability
But Parker et al (1995) gained success with Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ)

9

DBQ (Parker et al,. 1995)

Self report, 6 point fixed response, 3 factors: errors, violations and lapses

10

An error is

A misjudgement

11

A violation is

A deliberate decision (to break the law/ risky driving)

12

A lapse is

Mistakes without serious consequences

13

DBQ (Parkhill et al., 1995) found high on violations were

Young, male, high annual mileage, better than average driving bias

14

DBQ (Parkhill et al., 1995) found high on errors were

Self aware, susceptible to mood, use motorways infrequently, considered self to be relatively unsafe and error prone

15

Lauton et al (1997) added which additions to the DBQ?

Ordinary violations and aggressive violations

16

Parker et al (1996) added which two factors to the DBQ?

Moral norm and anticipated regret

17

Culture and driving (Ozkan et al., 2006)

DBQ scores differ in different countries- notion of driver culture e.g. Drivers from western/northern EU score higher on ordinary violations. Southern EU higher on aggressive violations

18

Factors affecting crash likelihood

West et al (1996) active vs passive crashes

McMurray (1970) divorce 3x more likely to RTA bc of thinking

19

Demographics and crashes

Men 2x crashes (Evans, 1991)
In UK, 50% fewer women killed in RTAs
Younger= more violations
Men= violations, women= errors

20

Why is skills training poor at preventing crash involvement?

Overconfidence bias

21

Young and male drivers characteristics

Unrealisistic optimism, accept more risk, will respond more to male drivers on road, will go on Amber lights

22

Youth and driving style (Parker et al., 1992)

Drive faster, leave shorter distances, accept more risk, run yellow lights, perceive social approval for risky driving

23

Theory of Planned behaviour can apply to driving. Example

Attitude (fast is good), social expectations (friends), perceived behavioural control (bias), behaviour intention (intend to drive fast)-> risky behaviour

24

DeWinter and Dodou (2010) meta analysis (n= 45,000) of DBQ

Consistent evidence for questions ability to predict self reported driving accidents

25

Personality factors of driving behaviour

Extroversion, locus of control, type a, psychosis and personality disorders, social deviance

26

Individual differences factors in risky driving (Schwebel et al., 2006)

Sensation-seeking, conscientiousness, hostile/frustrated/angry predict driving behaviour

27

Clarke, ward and Truman (2005) voluntary risk taking and skill deficits study- 4 accidents common:

3437 accident reports in Midlands from 1994-1996 aged 17-25:
Cross flow turns, rear end shunts, loss of control on bends and accidents in darkness

Voluntary risk main cause rather than skill deficits

28

Constantinuo et al (2011) risky and aggressive driving in your adults

352 Greek-Cypriot mean and women. Mean age 20. 2 years mean driving experience.
Male drivers higher on sensation-seeking and lower than women on sensitivity to punishment

29

Evolutionary theory of risky driving

More attractive to women so perhaps innate

30

Social cognition biases

Better than average bias, illusions of control, false Concensus, actor-observer effects, underestimate limit

31

Modifying driver behaviour

Cognitive debiasing, interventions, sticker (belt up in 70's), gov ads to increase anticipated regret

32

Rottengatter et al (1989) suggestions for modifying driver behaviour

Surveillance, post level of speed limit compliance, information campaigns

33

Parker et al (1996) suggestions for modifying driver behaviour

Anticipated regret campaign ads to change attitudes

34

Road rage factors

Frustration, value of car, anger, aggressive driving correlates with high societal violence, environmental stressors e.g. Noise, temperature, overcrowding

35

Percentage of deaths in US linked to aggressive driving (Martinez, 1997)

66%

36

The car as a symbol (Marsh and Collett, 1987)

The car as a pet, physiological and psychological sensations, ego and the car, personal space