drowning Flashcards Preview

aaa EM Exam > drowning > Flashcards

Flashcards in drowning Deck (21):
1

Because respiratory arrest is the most common cause of cardiac arrest in drowning victims, _______ approach should be used for drowning victims

the traditional A-B-C

instead of the AHA’s new C-A-B approach

2

Cardiac arrest from drowning - arrythmia??

The initial rhythm in the arrest is PEA followed by asystole.

3

abx in drowning

no evidence that empiric prophylactic treatment with antibiotics is efficacious for pulm or cns infection

4

MONA is for?

(Morphine, Oxygen, Nitroglycerin, Aspirin) greets chest pain patients at the door

5

Relative contraindications to the use of β-blockers include

asthma
COPD
decomped CHF
third-trimester pregnancy

6

The most common ECG abnormalities in PE are

tachycardia and nonspecific ST-T– wave abnormalities

7

S1Q3T3 pattern is seen in

“right heart strain pattern”- manifestation of acute pressure and volume overload of the right ventricle

S1Q3T3 is a sign of acute cor pulmonale

8

S1Q3T3 is?

lead I S wave= complete/ incomplete RBBB

lead III= Q wave, slight ST elevation, and an inverted T wave*

*These findings are due to the pressure and volume overload over the right ventricle which causes repolarization abnormalities.

9

The main ED treatment for atrial fibrillation is _________

rate control- agent most commonly used= diltiazem

10

If the patient is in atrial fibrillation for greater than 48 hours, then needs to be ____________ prior to cardioversion.

anticoagulated

stable atrial fibrillation --> echocardiogram

clot= Coumadin 2-3 wks w/ cardioversion when INR therapeutic.

no clot= heparin and cardioversion

11

ECG manifestations of hypokalemia include

flattening of T waves, ST-segment depression, and U waves.

12

Anticipatory guidance.
_____________ must be avoided until PTX completely resolves

Air travel and underwater diving (changes in atmospheric pressure)

13

what drug do you never use in cocaine coronary vasospasm

b- blocker

leaves alpha overwhelmed, makes things worse

Lorazepam is a great choice instead

14

Inferior wall MIs are characterized by ST elevation in at least two of the inferior leads __________

II, III, aVF

15

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is an idiosyncratic, life-threatening reaction to antipsychotic medications, with ___________ being the most common cause.

haloperidol

16

any patients with temperatures greater than ____ most likely have non-infectious etiologies for temperature elevation.

105

17

Dystonic reactions tpo anti-psych should be treated with____________

IM or IV
-benztropine (Cogentin®)- 1 to 2 mg
-diphenhydramine (Benadryl®)- 25 to 50 mg

18

Potential side effects of haloperidol include

acute dystonia, prolonged QT interval, Parkinsonism, and akathisia

19

The following mnemonic can be used to recall the common causes of an increased anion gap metabolic acidosis: CAT MUDPILES

C - cyanide
A - alcoholic ketoacidosis
T - toluene

M - methanol
U - uremia
D - diabetic ketoacidosis

P - paraldehyde
I - isoniazid/iron
L - lactate
E - ethylene glycol
S - salicylates

20

__________ is the most effective and most
rapid means of reducing preload in a patient with CHF.

Nitroglycerin

21

first-degree heart block

PR interval greater than 200 ms with a narrow QRS complex (less than 120 msec).