Flashcards in Drug Interactions And Adverse Drug Reactions Deck (21):
What is a drug interaction?
An interaction that occurs when the effect of one drug are changed by the presence of another drug, food, drink, or an environmental chemical agent
What are the 4 Pharmacokinetic Interactions and how may they effect the drugs?
1. Absorption (rate and extent)
2. Protein Binding (may reduce the dose)
3. Metabolic (induce and inhibit)
4. Renal (excretion) (may reduce the dose, as lost through excreting)
What are some incidence of drug interactions are proportional too?
1. Age- older you are more likely to happen
3. Number of Medicines
4. Number of physicians involved in patient care
5. Other medical conditions- Hepatic and Renal impairment
6. Use of OTC medication
7. Herbal Medication
8. Friends and family offering medication
What are some of the patient outcomes that may happen from ADRs?
1. Adverse and undesirable- toxicity and reduced efficiency
2. Beneficial- additive effect- two drugs may interact and cause the blood pressure to actually lower
3. Not clinically significant
What is an enzyme inducer and give some examples?
They increase enzyme activity and reduce the efficiency of metabolism:
Examples: Rifampicin, Phenytoin, Carbamazepine, Phenobarbitone, St john's Wort (Contraceptive pill)
What is an enzyme inhibitor and give some examples?
They reduce metabolism and increase other drug levels:
Examples: Amiodarone, Erythromycin, Grapefruit Juice, Ketoconazole, Cimetidine
What does narrow therapeutic index mean and give some examples?
It's the fine margin between toxic and inefficient:
Examples: warfarin, digoxin, ciclosporin, Phenytoin, Carbamazepine, Theophylline
What is a pharmacodynamic interaction?
Interactions where the effect of ONE drug is/are changed by the presence of ANOTHER drug at its site (fight for the same receptor)
1. Competition for specific receptors
2. Interference with physiological systems
What types of pharmacodynamic interactions can you have?
1. Additive/Synergistic- Not "true interactions" and more "combined toxicity"- e.g. K-sparing diuretics and ace inhibitors
2. Antagonist/Opposing- Pair of drugs with activities that are opposed to one another- e.g. Beta Blockers (propanolol) and beta receptor agonist (Salbutanlol)
3. Interactions due to Electrolyte Disturbances- e.g. K+ reduction due to loop diuretics which increases risk of digoxin toxicity
What should you as a pharmacist do about drug and herb interactions?
1. Routinely ask patients about their use of herbal medicines
2. The interacting constituent of the herb is not always known and is therefore not standardised for it. Could vary widely between different products and batches of the same product.
3. Example: St John's Wort
How does Drug-Food interactions relate to ADRS?
1. Food can cause clinically important changes in drug absorption through effects on the GI motility or by drug binding
2. Example Grapefruit juice may increase felodipine levels
3. Calcium with certain antibiotics bind with the same site
How does Drug-alcohol interactions relate to ADRS?
1. Any drug with BNF labels 2 and 4
2. Additive/synergistic interactions- CNS depressants/drugs with sedating actions
3. Metronidazole leads to disulfiram like effect which is a sharp painful feeling when taken with alcohol
How do you initially manage drug interactions?
1. Be aware of potentially interacting drugs then access clinical significance and risk to patients:
- Avoid combination
- Adjust dose
- Monitor the patient
- Continue the medication as before
What is the pharmacists role in managing ADRS?
1. Identify the patients at risk of ADR
2. Identify drugs known to produce ADR (warfarin) and monitor patient
3. Avoid use of drugs that cause ADR when there's an alternative available
4. Review patients medicines- stop any unwanted ones and check for interactions/contra-indictions
5. Make sure patient is counselled on the correct use of their medicines and the possible side effects
6. Reporting ADRs
What is an Adverse Drug Reaction?
An ADR is an unwanted or harmful reaction experienced following the administration of a drug or a combination of drugs and is suspected to be related to the drug
What are the patient groups that are most at risk from ADRs?
- Extremes of age
- Incurrent diseases
- History of intolerance of hypersensitivity
Whats the common way NSAIDS should be taken?
With or after food
What do the blue boxes in the BNF represent?
Recommendations for dose or lowest dose
How do you manage ADRs from NSAIDS?
- Paracetamol for analgesia instead
- Use Ibuprofen at lowest dose
- Don't use more than one oral NSAID at a time (not aspirin and ibuprofen)
- Identify patients at risk- Elderly, history of ulcers
- Use PPI's to protects the stomach from NSAIDS
Describe warfarin in terms of ADRs?
Can lead to:
- High INR
- Watery and thick blood
Always look at the warfarin book