Flashcards in Introduction to Traditional/Complementary Alternative Medicine Deck (18)
What is Traditional and complementary alternative medicine?
Encompasses medical and healthcare therapies outside the territory of conventional medicines- some have yet to be validated with scientific methods
What is traditional medicine?
1; The sum total of knowledge, skill and practices based on theories, beliefs, and experiences to indigenous to different culture.
2. Used to maintain health and prevent, diagnose, improve tor treat physical or mental illness
What is complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)?
1. A broad set of health care practices that are not part of that country's own tradition or conventional medicine that aren't fully integrated into dominant health care system
2. Used interchangeably with traditional medicine in some countries
List the main types of traditional complementary alternative medicine?
2. Herbal Medicine
What is acupuncture?
1. Inserting ultra fine sterile needles into specific acupuncture points
2. Establish flow of qi to restore balance and trigger the body's natural healing response
What is chiropractic?
Relationship between the body's structure and mainly the spine and its functioning
What is osteopathy?
Works with joints, muscles and connective tissue- treats soft tissue imbalances and abnormalities in skeletal function
What is Naturopathy and homeopathy?
Wide range of natural modalitites including homeopathy, herbalism, acupuncture, nutrition and lifestyle counselling
Why do people use traditional complementary alternative medication?
1. Part of culture and identity
2. Personal experience of successful use
3. Dissatisfaction with modern and conventional medicine
4. Perceived effectiveness
5. Non invasive and safer than western medicine
6. Emphasis on the whole person (holistic approach)
7. Personal feeling of control over the treatment process
8. Belief in all things "natural" and "green"- awareness of environmental issues and sustainability
How do people use traditional complementary alternative medication?
1. Always TCAM instead of western medicine
2. Only after western medicine failed
3. Depends on suitability of treatment and severity of illness
4. In addition to and concurrently with western medicine- with or without knowledge of doctor
What is the criticism towards traditional complementary alternative medication?
1. Non scientific, not evidence based - mostly unsupported by clinical trial evidence
2. Unregulated- anyone can practice and lack of accredited traditional complementary alternative medication practitioners
3. Perceptions of TCAM unsafe practice
4. All down to placebo effect?
What is the pharmacists role in traditional complementary alternative medication?
1. Good awareness of TCAM products- dietary supplements, herbal medicines, homoeopathic remedies and aromatherapy oils
2. Information on appropriate use of TCAM
3. Asking questions about use of TCAM during consolations
4. Being aware of potential adverse reactions and interactions with conventional medicines
What is the pharmacists responsibility in traditional complementary alternative medication?
1. GPHC code of conduct 5
2. Ensure that stocks of TCAM are obtained from reputable source of supply
3. Do not recommend any remedy where you have any reason to doubt its safety or quality
4. Offer advice on homeopathic or herbal medicines or other complementary therapies or medicines if you have undertaken suitable training or specialised knowledge
5. Aware that majority TCAMS are food supplements
6. Stock up and recommend products made by reputable pharmaceutical companies
7. Yellow card scheme for reporting any adverse reactions of TCAM with complementary medicines
What is the GPHC code of conduct 5?
Pharmacists must ensure that their knowledge, skills and performance are of high quality, up to date, evidence based and relevant to their field of practice at all stages of professional life"
What are the EU regulations on TCAM?
1. All manufactured herbal medicine products are required to have either a full marketing authorisation or traditional herbal registration
2. Created unified licensing system for traditional herbal medicine product
What are the three ways that TCAM can continue to be sold in the UK?
1. Achieving traditional herbal medicines registration (THR) via an assessment on application to the MHRA
2. Being licensed as a medicine under a marketing authorisation
3. Prepared for specific patient by practitioner following one to one consultation
How is the UK traditional herbal medicines registration scheme (THR) granted?
1. Administered by MHRA
2. If medicine is used for minor health conditions where medical supervision is not required (e.g. cold)
3. TCAM claims to treat major health conditions- will then need to apply for a MA
4. Products not registered under THR can only be sold as dietary supplement and no health indications allowed
5. This guarantees quality and safety (not efficacy)