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Flashcards in Nutraceuticals Deck (15):

What is a nutraceuticals (nutrition and pharmacy)?

1. Food or parts of a food that provide medical or health benefits

2. Including the prevention and treatment of disease


What is a functional food?

1. Natural or formulated food that has enhanced physiological performance

2. Prevents and treats a particular disease


What is the definition for the food and medicine according to regulation?

1. Food: maintains healthy organs and tissues

2. Medicine: Physiological function and treatment of disease


Give examples of important nutraceuticals in plant origin?

1. Garlic

2. Green tea

3. Grape seed extract

4. Blueberries

5. Carotenoids: lutein, astaxanithin, xexanthin, lycopene, beta carotene


Give examples of important nutraceuticals in animal origin?

1. Glucosamine: joints

2. Chondrotin: Found in crabs

3. Fish oils

4. Co-enzyme Q10

5. Melatonin


What are some nutraceuticals of tea?

1. Contains polyphenols (catehchins)

2. Green tea is steam treated- denatures enzyme

3. Black tea is dried naturally- leaves rolled and crushed- enzymes release

4. Oolong Tea produced in blood way


Describe what green tea contains, its use and the strength it comes in?

1. Contains caffeine, theophylline, essential oils, polyphenols, catching, type of flavonoid

2. Use: Antioxidant to protect against oxidative damage

3. Specifically: helps to maintain cardiovascular, bone, skin and oral health- weight management

4. Supplements: 250 to 300mg extract daily (4-6 cups of tea)


Describe what grape seed extract is, what it contains and similar uses?

1. Seeds from red grapes

2. Contains polyphenols called proanthocyanidins (dimers and trimers of catechins)


What are polyphenols?

Abundant micronutrients found in our diet that prevent degenerative diseases such as cancer


What are blueberries (bilberries)?

1. Contains polyphenols, anthocyanin (purple colouring), Procyanidines, flavonols and resveratrol

2. Used for cardiovascular effect:
- Increase blood flow to the brain (help memory)
- And the eye
- And other age related degenerative conditions

3. Much pharmacological evidence and some clinical studies to support these uses


What are carotenoids and xanthophylls?

1. Pigments found in fruit and vegetables

2. Non oxygenated compounds: Carotenes and Lycopenes

3. Oxygenated (xanthophylls): Luetein: concentrated in eye, found in green veg (spinach)

4. Beta carotene from carrots

5. Lycopene- tomatoes- better bioavailability when cooked

6. Astaxanthin and xeaxanthin: found as colouring in prawns and salmon

7. Vita A activity in some carotenes (beware overdose)


Where is glucosamine found and what is it?

1. Found in mucopolysaccharides (abundant in human joints) and chitin (structural protein for crabs, lobsters)

2. Basic building block for biosynthesis of components of cartilage (chondroitin - glycosaminoglycan) and often used in combination with it or fish oils

3. Good for maintaining elasticity, strength and resilience of cartilage in joints- evidence is good

4. Dose: 1500mg daily


What is Chondroitin?

1. Naturally found in cartilage and connective tissue

2. Stimulates chondrocyte metabolism- inhibits elastase and hyaluronidase (stimulates carilage)

3. Used to treat osteoarthritis- clinical studies conflicting

4. Often used: conjunction with glucosamine

5. Dose: Usually 400mg to 1200mg daily


What is Co-enzyme Q10 (ubiquninone)?

1. Mainly found in meat and fatty fish (some cereals, nuts, soya, vegetables, such as spinach, broccoli)

2. Involved in electron transport and synthesis of ATP

3. Vital role in intracellular energy production- heart muscle (no RDA determined)

4. Deficiency seems to be important:
- Little evidence as to how that may arise (dietary lack, symptom of diseases)

5. Use: CV mainly: CHF, angina, hypertension, migraine (athletes and may other conditions)

6. Safety and interaction not known


What is the Melatonin?

1. Natural hormone synthesised by pineal gland, tryptophan via serotonin

2. Secreted 24 circadian rhythm, regulating sleep awake periods.

3. Secretion starts when darkness falls and is inhibited by exposure to light

4. Declines after age 20

5. Regulates secretion of growth hormone, gonadotropic hormones and has antioxidant activity