Drugs Block 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Drugs Block 3 Deck (26):
1

Atropine

Inhibits parasympathetic nervous system. Produces cylcloplegia.

Also causes failure of eye to focus.

2

Cocaine

Blocks axoplasmic neuronal reuptake pump of Norepi. Will dialate if sympathetic innervation is intact.

Negative test indicate's Horner's syndrome. Test cocaine then amphetamine.

3

Amphetamine

MOA: Reverses axoplasmic pump stimulating release of norepi. If response = normal postganglionic. If no response to amphetamine = no postganglionic nerve.

Test cocaine then amphetamine.

4

Nicotine

Activates nicotinic receptor releasing norepinepherine, but also activates parasympathetics causing miosis which is more common.

5

Pilocarpine

Muscarinic agonist. Used to determine cause of miosis and to treat glaucoma by enhancing aqueous humor drainage through trabecular meshwork and canal of schlemm.

If eye responds with miosis then problem is with nerve (CN III palsy)

If eye does not respond to pilocarpine then problem has to be with the eye itself (Atropinic mydriasis)

6

Physostigmine

Anticholinesterase that prevents Ach degradation

Use: Used to treat narrow angle glaucoma by enhancing aqueous humor drainage through trabecular meshwork and canal of schlemm

7

Ectothiophate

Anticholinesterase that prevents Ach degradation

Use: Used to treat narrow angle glaucoma by enhancing aqueous humor drainage through trabecular meshwork and canal of schlemm

8

Terazosin (-azosin)

Alpha-1 receptor antagonist that is not used to treat eye disease but can have ocular side effects.

9

Reserpine

Norepinephrine depleting agents that can have occular side effects of miosis/ptosis

10

Timolol (-olol)

Beta blocker that decreases aqueous humor formation.

11

Lantanoprost

MOA: Prostaglandin derivative that increases uveo-scleral outflow of aqueous humor (flow through the ciliary muscle).

Most common current treatment for glaucoma

12

Acetazolamide

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor decreasing the production of aqueous humor. (also used to decrease CSF production)

13

Botulinum Toxin

Inhibits acetylcholine release used to treat muscle spasms.

14

Phenylephrine

Alpha-a agonist.

Used in eye drops to dilate pupils. Also used to reverse ptosis in Horner's syndrome.

15

Epinepherine

Increases aqueous humor outflow and inhibits formation of aqueous humor. Used to treat glaucoma.

16

Trimethoprim

Bacteriostatic - inhibits bacterial DHFR. Has low affinity for mammalian enzyme

17

Polymixin B

Mechanism - Bind to LPS in the membrane creating holes ultimately leading to the release of cellular components.

Gram negative multidrug resistant coverage

18

Trifluridine

MOA: Pyrimidine analog effective against acyclovir resistant virus because it can be phosphorylated by host kinases also making it much more toxic and should only be used topically.

19

Cochlear implant

Small implantable electronic device that acts as acoustic transducer. Can't restore or create nuclear hearing (cochlea is removed)

Both adults and children are candidates, but children between 2 and 6 are ideal due to auditory nerve degeneration.

20

Mastoidectomy

Removal of mastoid bone to create a safe ear by irradicating infection. Also remove cholesteatoma.

Done to preserve hearing and vestibular structures.

Reconstruction of middle ear structures.

21

Panretinal Photocoagulation (PRP)

Thousands of laser spots in supportive retina (retina outside macula) which leads to atrophy and decreased vascularization.

Used to treat Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (PDR) by preventing neovascularization

22

Macrolides: Erythromycin and azithromycin

Mechanism: Inhibits translation by binding 23s rRNA of the 50s subunit

Spectrum: Broad coverage of respiratory pathogens, Chlymidia

Resistance: Increased efflux, hyrolysis of drub by esterases, methylation of drug binding site

Adverse effects: GI discomfort, Hepatic failure, and prolonged QT interval. Inhibitors of CYP 450

23

Glycerine or Isorbide

Used to dehydrate eye during closed angle glaucoma emergency in conjunction with pilocarpine and acetazolamide

24

Pyremethamine and Sulfadiazine

Sulfadiazine - blocks pteridine synthetase

Pyrimethamine - blocks parasitic DHFR

Used in conjunction to treat Toxoplasmosis

25

Polytrim

Trimethoprim- blocks bacterial DHFR

Polymixin b - binds LPS creates holes in membrane (gram -)

Used together to treat bacterial conjunctivitis

26

Polymixin and Neomycin and Hydrocortisone

Polymixin b - binds LPS creates holes in membrane (gram -)

Neomycin - Blocks translocation of 30s ribosomal subunit

Hydrocortisone - Block phospholipase A2 preventing inflammation

Used to treat bacterail otitis externa