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Flashcards in Drugs for upper respiratory infections Deck (48)
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1

What is the most prevalent URI:

Common cold affects adults 2-4 yr; children 4-12 yr

2

What is the common cold caused by and what area of the body does it affect the most:

Rhinovirus affects the nasopharyngealtract

3

An acute inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose commonly accompanies the Rhinovirus is defined as:

acute rhinitis

4

What is caused by pollen or foreign substance (animal dander) AKA hay fever:

Allergic rhinitis (NOT THE SAME AS ACUTE RHINITIS)

5

What does acute rhinitis and allergic rhinitis have in common:

increased nasal secretions

6

When is the common cold, caused by the rhinovirus, most contagious:

1-4 days before onset of symptoms (incubation period) and during the first 3 days of the cold (caught via touch)

7

What are the common S/S of the common cold caused by the rhinovirus:

Rhinorrhea ( watery nasal discharge); nasal congestion; cough; increased mucosal secretions

8

What does infected rhinitis look like and how should they be treated:

tenacious, mucoid that's yellow-yellow/green; abx should be given

9

What are some home remedies used to treat a cold:

rest; chix soup; hot toddy (sugar, EtOH, tea), vitamin C, megadoses of vitamines

10

What are the 4 groups of drugs used to treat the common cold:

Antihistamines, antitussives, decongestants, expectorants

11

What is the mechanism of antihistamines:

H1 antagonists (blockers) by competing with histamine for receptor sites thus preventing a histamine response.

12

What are the types of histamine receptors:

H1 and H2

13

What occurs when the H1 receptors are stimulated:

extravascular smooth muscles of the nasal cavity are constricted

14

What occurs when the H2 receptors are stimulated:

increase of gastric secretions occur causing peptic ulcers

15

This first generation antihistamine decreases nasal itchiness/tickling, but has anticholinergic properties. What is the type of drug and what is the anticholinergic property:

Diphenhydramine (Benadryl); causes drowsiness and decreased secretions (useful in treating acute rhinitis)

16

These second-generation antihistamines are non-sedating and have fewer anticholinergic symptoms. What are some examples:

Allegra, claritin (loratadine), Zyrtec, optivar

17

What is Diphenhydramine's mechanism of action

Absorbed in GI; antagonist; antitussive; onset=15 min; can be used as a sleeping aid

18

What are the common side effects of Diphenhydramine:

Drowsiness, fatigue, dizziness, anticholinergic, coordination; rashes

19

DILATION of nasal blood vessels d/t infection, inflammation, or allergy is defined as:

nasal congestion

20

What occurs when there's DILATION of the nasal blood vessels:

transudation of fluid into the tissue spaces resulting in swelling of the nasal cavity

21

What are sympathomimetic amines:

nasal decongestants

22

What is sympathomimetic amines' or nasal decongestant's mechanism of action:

stimulates alpha-adrenergic receptors to produce vasoconstriction of capillaries w/in the nasal mucosa=SHRINKING reduced secretions (rhinitis)

23

What could occur with frequent use of nasal decongestants or sympathomimetic amines: 

tolerance and REBOUND NASAL CONGESTANTS (CAUSED BY IRRITATION OF NASAL MUCOSA)

 

24

This category of decongestants is used primarily for allergic rhinitis (hay fever or acute coryza-profuse nasal discharge): 

Systemic decongestants

25

What is the main difference of nasal decongestants from systemic decongestants: 

NASAL DECONGESTANTS ACT PROMPTLY W/FEWER SIDE EFFECTS THAN SYSTEMIC DECONGESTANTS

26

What is the main difference of systemic decongestants from nasal decongestants: 

RELIEVES NASAL CONGESTION FOR A LONGER PERIOD OF TIME THAN NASAL DECONGESTANTS

27

What are some examples of systemic decongestants: 

ephedrine, neo-synephrine, and Sudafed

28

ephedrine, neo-synephrine, and sudafed is often combined with: 

antihistamines, analgesics, antitussive

29

What are the side effects of decongestants: 

INCREASED BP/GLUCOSE; jittery/nervous/restless

30

How long may rebound nasal congestion occur: 

if a pt uses decongestants >5 days