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Nervous System: Unit IV > Drugs of Abuse > Flashcards

Flashcards in Drugs of Abuse Deck (30)
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1

Opioids: examples

  • oxycodone
  • hydrocodone
  • heroin
  • meperidine

2

CNS depressants: examples

  • barbiturates
  • benzodiazepines
  • alcohol

3

CNS stimulants: examples

  • methamphetamine
  • cocaine
  • nicotine
  • MDMA

4

Nicotine: examples

well, just nicotine...cigarettes, dip, e-cigarettes. all that bad stuff.

5

Hallucinogens: examples

  • Indoleamines
  • Phenylethylamines
  • LSD
  • Mushrooms
  • Mescaline (Peyote)

6

Cannabinoids: examples

apparently marijuana is legal in colorado. not that it matters to me at all...nope...i wouldn't know anything about that.

7

Anticholinergics: examples

  • atropine
  • Jimson weed
  • OTC antihistamines

8

Opioids: CNS action/NT & risk of tolerance/dependence 

  • Interaction w/endogenous opioid receptors
  • Tolerance/dependence develops rapidly 

9

CNS depressants: CNS action/NT & risk of tolerance/dependence 

  • MOA: enhancement of GABA activity
  • Tolerance

    • barb = high

    • benz = low

    • etoh = moderate

  • All 3 ==> dependence

10

CNS stimulants: CNS action/NT & risk of tolerance/dependence 

  • MOA: Cause release or block reuptake of catecholamines
  • Stimulant use ==> tolerance

    • Supersensitivity to movements.

  • Some possible physical dependence.

  • Strong psychologic dependence

11

Nicotine: CNS action/NT & risk of tolerance/dependence 

  • MOA: agonist at nicotinic neuronal receptors
  • ==> tolerance 
  • moderate physical dependence
    • moderate-strong psychological dependence

12

Hallucinogens: CNS action/NT & risk of tolerance/dependence 

  • MOA:  Agonists at 5HT2 postsynaptic receptors; DA release
  • Tolerance
    • tolerance can develop to larger doses for behavioral effects (but not CV effects)
  • Little observed dependence

13

Cannabinoids: CNS action/NT & risk of tolerance/dependence 

  • MOA: Agonist at CB1 receptor in CNS
  • Tolerance appears rapidly, disappears rapidly
  • No physical dependence

14

Anticholinergics: CNS action/NT & risk of tolerance/dependence 

  • MOA: Blocks muscarinic cholinergic receptors
  • Tolerance - yes
  • Dependence Unknown

15

Opioids: Acute toxicity rxn + tx

  • Rxn: Coma, resp distress, pinpoint pupils
  • Tx: Airway/breathing/CV support, nalaxone

16

CNS depressants: Acute toxicity rxn + tx

  • Rxn: Confusion, talkativeness, ataxia, miosis
    • Barbs → coma
  • Tx:
    • Barb → supportive
    • Benzo →  flumazenil
    • EtOH →  supportive

17

CNS stimulants: Acute toxicity rxn + tx

  • Rxn: rapid pulse, BP, inc temp, sweat, increase motor, paranoid psychos
  • Tx:
    • Cardiopulm supp
    • diazepam
    • phentolamine
    • haloperidol

18

Nicotine: Acute toxicity rxn + tx

  • Rxn:
    • N/V
    • salivation
    • ab pain, diahhrea
    • HA
    • dizziness
    • convulsions
    •  resp fail
    • death
  • Tx: Gastric lavage

19

Hallucinogens: Acute toxicity rxn + tx

  • Rxn:
    • Anxiety, paranoia,
    • confusion
    • hallucination
    • convulsions
    • CV collapse
    • renal failure
  • Tx: Stabilize, isolate, benzodiazepines

20

Cannabinoids: Acute toxicity rxn + tx

  • Rxn: Tremors, ↓ musc strength + balance +coord, can’t drive
  • Tx: general support, quiet room w/min stimuli

21

Anticholinergics: Acute toxicity rxn + tx

  • Rxn: disorientation, delirium, flush, dry skin, fever, memory loss
  • Tx: Physostigmine and benzos

22

23

Opioids: Withdrawal severity + tx/relapse prevention

  • Rxn: Bothersome, not dangerous.
    • flu-like, sleepiness, sweat, diarrhea, vomit, hypertension
  • Tx: Clonidine for w/drawal sx
    • methadone
    • buprenorphine
    • naltrexone

24

CNS depressants: Withdrawal severity + tx/relapse prevention

  • Rxn: Lethal! Seizures. Insomnia, excitability, sweating, nausea, vomiting, weakness, tremors
  • Tx: Initiate reduction/substitution, monitor for seizures, attend to nutrition and electrolyte balance
    • Anxiety tx: buspirone
    • Prevent abuse: disulfiram

25

CNS stimulants: Withdrawal severity + tx/relapse prevention

  • Rxn: Mild. Sleepiness, hyperphagia, depression
  • Tx: Resolves on own.
    • TCAD
    • Topiramate (anticonvulsant)
    • Modafinil (improves sleepiness)

26

Nicotine: Withdrawal severity + tx/relapse prevention

  • Rxn: Irritability, hostility, anxiety, depression, weight gain
  • Tx:
    • Nicotine replacement
    • bupropion
    • chantix = partial nicotinic agonist
    • Nicotine conjugatve vaccine = agonist @ periphery, but not @ CNS

27

Hallucinogens: Withdrawal severity + tx/relapse prevention

  • No clinical withdrawal syndrome known, can have flashbacks

28

Cannabinoids: Withdrawal severity + tx/relapse prevention

  • Rxn: Not common, fatigue, anxiety, nausea, malaise, HA

  • Tx: None needed unless become depressed → antidepressants

29

Anticholinergics: Withdrawal severity + tx/relapse prevention

  • No widthrawal syndrome

30