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Flashcards in ear airway and phaarynx Deck (23)
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1

List the ossicles and their function

1. Malleus
2. Incus
3. Stapes

2

What are the protection mechanisms in the middle ear?

tensor tympani muscle: pulls handle of the malleus medially and tenses the tympanic membrane - reducing the vibrations

Stapedius. pulls stapes posteriorly to prevent excessive oscillations

3

What does the outer ear consist of?

auricle
external acoustic meatus

4

Name 4 mechanisms that protect the airways:

1. gag reflex
- SENSORY soft palate and back of
tongue
- MOTOR: pharyngeal constrictors
2. Swallowing
3. Sneezing
4. Coughing

5

Label the sinuses and mention any clinical relevance they may have

Sphenoidal recess
- sphenoidal sinus

Superior meatus
-posterior ethmoidal

Middle meatus
- frontal
- anterior anad middle ethomidal cells
- maxillary sinus

Inferior meatus
- nasolacrimal duct

6

Explain the innervation of each sinus (keep it simple)

V1- frontal sphenoidal and ethmoid

v2 maxillary sinus

7

What are afferent and efferent pathways of coughing

Afferent CN X
Efferent V3 and CN 10

8

What are afferent and efferent pathways of sneezing

afferent V2
Efferent Cn 10

9

What is the function of the eustachian tube?

allows prressure equalisatin on either side of the tympanic membrane

10

what is the clinical relevance of the eustachian tube?

infection travel through teh eustachian tube to the mastoid antrum and the air cells and can erode the temporal bone

11

What is the clinical significance of the maxillary sinuses?

maxillary sinus very close to the teeth
-> therefore it can travel up the teeth to the sinus

12

What are the clinical relevance of teh sphenoidal sinuses

they can be used for transphenoidal surgery

13

What are the constituents of the larynx

3 unpaired cartilages:
cricoid
thyroid
epiglottis
and 1 paired
arytenioid

14

What are the 4 muscles of the larynx

1. transverse arytenoid
2. thyroarytenoid
3. posterior cricoarytenoid
4. lateral cricoarytenoid

15

What forms the vocal ligament ?

the vocal ligament is formed by the cricothyroid membrane, which thickens at the top

16

What forms the vestibular ligament?

the quadrangle membrane

17

What is the innervation of the larynx

The innervation of the larynx:
Superior laryngeal nerve:
- all sensation above the vocal chords
- cricothyroid muscle

Recurrent laryngeal nerve
- all sensation below the vocal fold
- all muscles of the larynx apart from teh cricothyroid muscle

18

Describe the larynx allows speech

allows phonation and protection trough the
- movement of the thyroid and arytenoid cartilage, causes movement in the vocal ligament resulting in altered phonation

- movement of teh arytenoid cartilages are causes movement of the vestibular ligament, which has a protective function

19

What does the cricothyroid muscle do?

moves the thyroid cartilage along the cricothyroid joint

- increases tension and thereby increases pitch

20

What does the posterior cricoarytenoid do ?

abduction of the vocal ligaments +

- increases air flow and increases the volume

21

What does the lateral cricoarytenoid do ?

adduction of the vocal ligament

22

What does the transverse arytenoid cartilage do?

adduction of the arytenoid cartilages

23

Name the 6 functions of teh facial nerve

Salivation
lacrimation
facial expression
taste
Mastication and swallowing: buccinator and raising of the larynx
general sensation: external auditory meatus