Flashcards in ear airway and phaarynx Deck (23)
List the ossicles and their function
What are the protection mechanisms in the middle ear?
tensor tympani muscle: pulls handle of the malleus medially and tenses the tympanic membrane - reducing the vibrations
Stapedius. pulls stapes posteriorly to prevent excessive oscillations
What does the outer ear consist of?
external acoustic meatus
Name 4 mechanisms that protect the airways:
1. gag reflex
- SENSORY soft palate and back of
- MOTOR: pharyngeal constrictors
Label the sinuses and mention any clinical relevance they may have
- sphenoidal sinus
- anterior anad middle ethomidal cells
- maxillary sinus
- nasolacrimal duct
Explain the innervation of each sinus (keep it simple)
V1- frontal sphenoidal and ethmoid
v2 maxillary sinus
What are afferent and efferent pathways of coughing
Afferent CN X
Efferent V3 and CN 10
What are afferent and efferent pathways of sneezing
Efferent Cn 10
What is the function of the eustachian tube?
allows prressure equalisatin on either side of the tympanic membrane
what is the clinical relevance of the eustachian tube?
infection travel through teh eustachian tube to the mastoid antrum and the air cells and can erode the temporal bone
What is the clinical significance of the maxillary sinuses?
maxillary sinus very close to the teeth
-> therefore it can travel up the teeth to the sinus
What are the clinical relevance of teh sphenoidal sinuses
they can be used for transphenoidal surgery
What are the constituents of the larynx
3 unpaired cartilages:
and 1 paired
What are the 4 muscles of the larynx
1. transverse arytenoid
3. posterior cricoarytenoid
4. lateral cricoarytenoid
What forms the vocal ligament ?
the vocal ligament is formed by the cricothyroid membrane, which thickens at the top
What forms the vestibular ligament?
the quadrangle membrane
What is the innervation of the larynx
The innervation of the larynx:
Superior laryngeal nerve:
- all sensation above the vocal chords
- cricothyroid muscle
Recurrent laryngeal nerve
- all sensation below the vocal fold
- all muscles of the larynx apart from teh cricothyroid muscle
Describe the larynx allows speech
allows phonation and protection trough the
- movement of the thyroid and arytenoid cartilage, causes movement in the vocal ligament resulting in altered phonation
- movement of teh arytenoid cartilages are causes movement of the vestibular ligament, which has a protective function
What does the cricothyroid muscle do?
moves the thyroid cartilage along the cricothyroid joint
- increases tension and thereby increases pitch
What does the posterior cricoarytenoid do ?
abduction of the vocal ligaments +
- increases air flow and increases the volume
What does the lateral cricoarytenoid do ?
adduction of the vocal ligament
What does the transverse arytenoid cartilage do?
adduction of the arytenoid cartilages