Ear, Nose, Throat Flashcards Preview

Medicine II > Ear, Nose, Throat > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ear, Nose, Throat Deck (121):
1

otolaryngology

head and neck surgeries

2

subspecialties of otolaryngology

ear, nose, throat

3

otolaryngology is related to

subspecialties
neurootology
pediatric
plastic + reconstructive
head + neck oncology

4

anatomy related to otolaryngology

ears
nose
oral cavity/ pharynx
salivary glands
larynx
neck

5

ears

hearing + balance

6

outer ears

pinna
external ear
tympanic membrane

7

tympanic membrane

eardrum

8

middle ear

ossicles + eustacian tube

9

inner ear

facial nerve
auditory nerve
vestibular nerve

10

what borders the outer ear and the middle ear?

eardrum

11

otitis externa

red swollen, pink ear; water going into the external auditory canal; bacteria flourish; very painful; antibiotic drops needed

12

cerumen

can cause hearing loss; elderly

13

cauliflower ear

hematoma on ear

14

otitis media

air bubbles indicating there is fluid behind tympanic membrane; usually occurs in children 8-9 years old and sometimes in older people; very painful

15

cholesteatoma

invagination of the membrane; result of chonic otitis media

16

TM Perforation

tympanic membrane perforation

17

conductive hearing loss

sensorineural hearing loss; air sounds don’t get through the fluid or tympanic membrane punctured (does not relay sound well)

18

sensory neural hearing loss

sounds get to the organs of hearing, but because of a neural issue such as a cochlear nerve; sound isn’t transmitted as electrical signals to your brain

19

acoustic hearing loss

happens around acoustic nerve

20

hearing loss is so profound

nothing really helps to augment sound;cochlear implants were invented (like a bionic ear)

21

outer ear problems

otitis externa (swimmer's ear)
cerumen impaction
skin cancer
trauma
congenital deformities

22

middle ear problems

otitis media
cholestreatoma
cancer
TM perforation
conductive hearing loss

23

inner ear

sensorineural hearing loss
acoustic neuromas
noise injury
vertigo

24

cochlear implants

used for bilateral profound hearing losee

25

cochlear implants in inner ear

well is placed in bone for the implant that has a wire that goes directly through the cochlea

26

after cochlear is in inner ear,

a headpiece will be placed on the skin—> electrical signal—> stimulates electrical nodes along the wire which stimulates diff nerves along the cochlea

27

hair cells in cochlear die off causing no hearing

everything else works such as the nerve (nerve is still intact)

28

if a tumor is in the ear instead, would a cochlear implant work?

no

29

nose + paranasal sinuses

epistaxis
polyps
allergic rhinitis
sinusitis
neoplasms

30

epistaxis

nose bleeds

31

what acts as a shock absorber on the face

midface

32

where do polyps grow

within the nose

33

kiesselbach's plexus

where many arteries coalesce; prone to drying when it’s cold ; medication like warfare may have more epistaxis; those with hypertension;

34

artery associated with epistaxis

external and internal carotid artery

35

90% epistaxis bleeding from where?

kiesselbach's plexus

36

What can cause epistaxis?

coagulopathy
digital trauma
hypertension

37

epistaxis

ID site
cautery
pack
ligate blood vessels
embolization

38

what cauterizes blood vessels?

silver nitrate

39

what burns the vessels that are bleeding?

electrocautery

40

pack

nasal tampons

41

posterior pack

water is used to add pressure

42

embolization

inject materials that will coagulate the location of bleeding

43

nose should be kept moist during epistaxis

prevention
nasal saline spray
vaseline at night

44

nasal polyps

edematous nasal mucosa
usually allergic
unilateral risk of neoplasm

45

if polyp is only on one side, it is probably not an allergy but a

neoplasm!

46

nasal polyps have fleshy interiors instead of

fluid

47

nasal polyps symptoms

nasal obstruction
anosmia
infection

48

anosmia

inability to sense smell

49

infection can back up sinuses and lead to

sinusitis

50

nasal polyp treatment

observation
allergy evaluation
nasal and systemic steroids
surgery
usually recur

51

who usually gets nasal polyps

teens and 20s if you've had lifelong history of allergies as a kid

52

nasal sprays can be used

chronically

53

allergic rhinitis and sinutsitis

seasonal or constant
nasal discharge-initially clear
sneezing
itchy eyes
-allergy evaluation
-allergy shots
-avoidance
-antihistamines
-nasal systemic steroids

54

sinusitis

-pain
-malaise, nasal obstruction, headache, purulent rhinorrhea
-usually after URI or allergic rhiintis

55

rhinitus

runny nose ect, allergic rhinorrhea would be clear instead of purulent

56

sinusitis vs. rhinitis

sinusitis has pain

57

black in CT

air

58

gray in CT scan

density

59

unilateral maxillary sinusitis

neoplasm or dental origin

60

organisms that cause sinusitis

strep, staph, H. influenza

61

sinusitis treatment

-antibiotics for 3 wks
-decongestant
-rhinitis medicamentosa
-surgery

62

decongestant

oxymetazaline spray, 3 days

63

nasal sprays for allergic rhinitis, use

whenever needed

64

oxymetazaline spray

-fast acting sprays
-be wary of rhinitis

65

medicamentosa

-only use for 3 days at a time or else= vasodilation and nose gets very stuffy

66

sometimes surgery for sinusitis is required to

open sinuses

67

complications of sinusitis

orbital cellulitis
abscess
meningitis
brain abscess

68

orbital cellulitis is a result of

sinusitis

69

neoplasms

-rare
-juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma
-hard wood, heavy metal adenocarcinomas, SCCa

70

neoplasm risk

malignancy

71

nasopharyngeal neoplasms common in males from

canton province in China

72

nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

juvenile- benign process in nasopharynx, man has chronic nose bleeds from one side and you see a lesion when you look in

73

carpenters who breathe in wood

associated with adenocarcinomas

74

oral cavity/ pharynx

-tonsillitis/pharyngitis
-infections
-cancer

75

viral tonsillitis / pharyngitis

mononucleosis related to ebstein barr virus

76

bacterial tonsillitis / pharyngitis

strep group A beta hemolytic or H. influeza, corynebacterium which causes diphtheriae

77

hypertrophy of tonsils, you want to rule out

acute mononucleosis

78

white spots off tonsils; can be indication of

strep throat

79

tonsillitis/pharyngitis symptoms

odynophagia
fever
exudate

80

tonsillitis / pharyngitis treatment

antibiotics + rehydrate
-make sure children are well hydrated, especially when they have sore throats and don't want to drink

81

tonsillectomy

-4-6 episodes/ yr
-3-4 episodes each of 2 consecutive years
-3 episodes each 3 consecutive years
-asymmetric tonsils

82

tonsillectomy

in top 5 most painful procedures

83

lingual tonsils

adenoids; potential lymphoma may occur from lymphoid tissue

84

unilateral peritonsillar abscess

-displacement uvula and tonsil
-secondary glands of weber treatment
treatment= aspiration, I+D, "hot tonsillectomy + antibiotics

85

pus collection in place next to tonsils, treat with

aspiration

86

adenotonsillar hypertrophy

-OSAS
-Snoring
-Mouth breathing
-Restless sleep
-respiratory pauses

87

history of getting mono= severe sore throat can result in

adenotonsillar hypertrophy which will call for a tonsillectomy which will take care of the airway obstruction

88

head + neck cancer

-head + neck cancer 6% of all cancers
-30% oral cavity
-4th -5th decade
males> females

89

head + neck cancer

-localized pain
-odynophagia
-dysphagia
-hoarseness
-dyspnea
-bleeding
-EAR PAIN = RED FLAG

90

dysphagia

difficulty eating

91

odynophagia

painful swallowing

92

dyspnea

shortness of breath

93

ear pain

vagus to ear, when you get a sore throat, you also get ear pain too

94

risk factors for head and neck cancers

tobacco, alcohol, genetic

95

treatment for head and neck cancer

(stage I + II) + (surgery + surgery III + IV) combined

96

what is associated with head + neck cancers

HPV

97

ear pain associated with

alcohol + tobacco

98

salivary glands

sialadenitis
sialolithiasis
neoplasms

99

sialadenitis

inflammation of a salivary gland

100

sialolithiasis

stones

101

sialodenitis

viral- mumps, CMV
bacterial
hypossecretion
stasis
obstruction

102

the main cause of bacterial sialadenitis

staph aureus (antibiotics needed)

103

sialolithiasis

-relapsing sialadenitis
-20-40% radiolucent
-plain films (occlusal, AP, lateral, CT scan, Sialogram)

104

stone causes back up of saliva which causes

sialolithiasis

105

sialolithiasis

(also termed salivary calculi, or salivary stones), is a condition where a calcified mass forms within a salivary gland, usually in the duct of the submandibular gland (also termed "Wharton's duct”).

106

sialolithiasis treatment

-E/O stone
-gland excision (when stone is very close to gland)
-antibiotics if you want to remove staph. aureus

107

salivary neoplasms

parotid
pleomorphic adenoma
submandibular
minor, benign, malignant

108

percent parotid salivary neoplasms

**80-85%

109

percent pleomorphic adenoma salivary neoplasms

**85%

110

% submandibular salivary neoplasms

**50% benign

111

percent minor salivary neoplasms

**20% benign
75% malignant

112

what nerve goes through the parotid

facial

113

main risk of removing a benign tumor of parotid galnd

facial nerve

114

branches of facial nerve

Temporal
Zygomatic
Buccal
Mandibular
Cervical

115

facial plastic surgery

reconstructive + cosmetic

116

cosmetic

-aging face
-rhinoplasty
-otoplasty

117

rhinoplasty

plastic surgery on the nose

118

otoplasty

surgical + nonsurgical procedures correcting deformities and defects of the pinna and for reconstructing a defetive or deformed or absent external ear

119

foreign bodies in airway

hypopharynx
larynx
trachea
bronchus
esophagus

120

foreign bodies in airway can lead to

stridor
cough
pneumonia

121

stridor

harsh or grating sound; someone trying to breathe across an obstruction