Early Pregnancy Complications Flashcards Preview

Obs & Gynae (Obs) > Early Pregnancy Complications > Flashcards

Flashcards in Early Pregnancy Complications Deck (88)
Loading flashcards...
1

Miscarriage is defined as the spontaneous end of a pregnancy before the foetus has reached the age of viability- what is this age?

24 weeks

2

Sporadic miscarriages occur in what percentage of all pregnancies?

20%

3

What is the most common cause of a miscarriage?

Underlying genetic abnormality

4

What are some risk factors for miscarriage?

Increased maternal age, smoking/alcohol/drugs, excessive caffeine

5

What defines recurrent miscarriage?

The loss of three consecutive pregnancies

6

In women with APS, what interventions may improve the live birth rate for future pregnancies?

Low-dose aspirin and LMWH

7

What are some risk factors for recurrent miscarriage?

Increasing age and previous miscarriages

8

How is a miscarriage most likely to present?

PV bleeding and crampy abdominal pain

9

What two types of miscarriage will be associated with a viable intra-uterine pregnancy on ultrasound?

Threatened and inevitable

10

Which type of miscarriage is this describing: vaginal bleeding and/or abdominal pain with a closed cervical os?

Threatened miscarriage

11

Which type of miscarriage is this describing: vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain with an open cervical os?

Inevitable miscarriage

12

Which type of miscarriage is this describing: vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain with an open cervical os and/or products of conception in the cervical os?

Incomplete miscarriage

13

Which type of miscarriage is this describing: settling vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain with a closed cervical os?

Complete miscarriage

14

Which type of miscarriage is this describing: often completely asymptomatic, but no foetal heartbeat and/or an empty gestational sac is found on ultrasound?

Missed miscarriage

15

Why should products of conception be removed from the cervix in women having a miscarriage?

To reduce blood loss and pain, and reduce the risk of cervical shock

16

If a woman with a miscarriage experiences cramps, N+V, sweating and fainting, what complication should you consider?

Cervical shock

17

What are the 4 main investigations for women with a miscarriage?

Urinary pregnancy test, serial HCG testing, TVUS, bloods for G&S

18

Transvaginal ultrasound is the most sensitive investigation for pregnancies less than what gestation?

8 weeks

19

The foetal heartbeat should be auscultated by hand held Doppler from what gestation?

12 weeks

20

What pattern seen on serial HCG testing is most indicative of miscarriage?

Decreasing concentrations over time

21

In a woman with recurrent miscarriage, what investigation is used to screen for anti-phospholipid syndrome?

Anti-cardiolipin antibodies

22

In a woman with recurrent miscarriage, what investigation is used to look for balanced translocations?

Parental karyotyping

23

In a woman with recurrent miscarriage, what investigation is used to look for thrombophilic defects?

Thrombophilia screen

24

In a woman with recurrent miscarriage, what investigation is used to look for uterine abnormalities?

TVUS and/or hysteroscopy

25

What management is required for women with excessive, life-threatening blood loss from a miscarriage?

Surgical management

26

What is usually the first line management plan for miscarriage?

Expectant management

27

What are the 3 situations in which expectant management is not possible for miscarriage?

High risk of bleeding, evidence of infection, previous adverse/traumatic event associated with pregnancy

28

What follow up is required for women who undergo expectant management of a miscarriage?

Ultrasound scan in 2-3 weeks

29

What medicine is used in the medical management of a miscarriage?

PO or PV misoprostol (PV is recommended)

30

Women who undergo medical management of a miscarriage are advised to take a pregnancy test when?

2 weeks after treatment