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Flashcards in earth and space 2 Deck (32):
1

what is an air mass

large chunk of air that acquires characteristics of location

2

what is a front

boundary between 2 different air masses
always attached to low pressure, never high

3

4 types of fronts

cold front
warm front
stationary front
occluded front

4

changes that occur when a cold front passes through

pressure rises
temp drops
winds shift to north
rain
cumulonimbus

5

changes seen when warm front passes

pressure drops
temp increases
winds shift to south
rain is produced
stratiform clouds

6

changes for stationary front

neither cold nor warm air is advancing
soaking rains produced
nimbostratus clouds

7

changes with occluded front

cold front catches a warm front
behaves like a cold front

8

what is a forecast

an educated prediction of the future weather
based on observation of current conditions

9

what way does our weather system move

west to east
steered by jet stream
pushed by prevailing wind

10

how do you locate a front

locate low pressure system
look for patterns in temp
identify which way air masses are moving

11

what is a hurricane

tropical cyclone
area of very low pressure
winds rotate in counter clockwise direction

12

what do you need for a hurricane to form

needs to be over warm water
high humidity
low wind shear

13

hurricane origin

atlantic hurricanes begin as storms(tropical waves) off the west coast of africa
pushed by prevailing winds
pick up energy from warm ocean water

14

characteristics of a hurricane

high wind speed-74mph
storm surge
very low pressure
very large
produce heavy rainfall

15

anatomy of a hurricane

rain bands - where air rises and sinks
eye of hurricane
eye wall

16

how are hurricanes classified

by their wind speed

17

how does the shape of the coast effect storm surge

if it is a gentle slope there will be a greater storm surge

18

what is a thunderstorm

cumulonimbus clouds
must have lightning and thunder

19

severe/strong storms have -

hail
high wind speeds
tornadoes

20

what is a frontal thunderstorm

when a cold air mass collided with a warm air mass-cold front
cold air causes the warm air to rise quickly forming cumulonimbus clouds
often strong and can last for several hours

21

what is an air mass thunderstorm

single storm and no fronts
air parcel rises bc it is warmer than the surrounding air
rises quickly bc upper air is cold

22

what are the two processes of precipitation

warm cloud- water droplets bump into other droplets enough mass/density to fall to earth
cold cloud/ice process- super cooled water evaporates
deposited onto ice crystals

23

what is hail

ice particles produced by up draft in severe thunderstorms
the more severe the storm-the larger the hail stone

24

what are the types of lighting

cloud to cloud-most common
cloud to ground- common
ground to cloud- least common

25

what is larkos triangle

area which has the right conditions to create tornadoes
located between cold front and warm front

26

how do they classify tornadoes

based on damage, EF0-EF5

27

special cases of tornadoes

water spout - tornado that forms on water
microburst- damage is not in a circular motion like a tornado might be

28

what type of air masses produce tornadoes

continental polar and maritime tropical

29

what is lake effect snow

a weather phenomenon created when cold, dry air picks up moisture and heat by passing over a relatively warm lake

30

components to create lake effect snow

warm lake- not a temp, just a big difference between air and water
winds need to come from north or northwest

31

when and where does lake effect snow happen

most common in late fall or early winter
most pronounced when lake is not frozen
south and east sides of lakes

32

influence of elevation on lake effect snow

elevation enhances lake effect snow
more snow is squeezed out of air