EAU 2020 Urolithiasis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EAU 2020 Urolithiasis Deck (163)
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1

Non-infection stones

Calcium oxalate
Calcium phosphate
Uric acid

2

Infection stones

MAP
Carbonate apatite
Ammonium urate

3

Stones from Genetic causes

Cystine
Xanthine
2,8-Dihydroxyadenine

4

MINERAL NAME
Calcium oxalate monohydrate

Whewellite

5

MINERAL NAME
Calcium oxalate dihydrate

Weddelite

6

MINERAL NAME
Basic calcium phosphate

Apatite

7

MINERAL NAME
Calcium hydroxyl phosphate

Carbonate apatite

8

MINERAL NAME
b-tricalcium phosphate

Whitlockite

9

MINERAL NAME
Carbonate apatite phosphate

Dahllite

10

MINERAL NAME
Calcium carbonate

Aragonite

11

MINERAL NAME
Uric acid/uric acid dihydrate

Uricite

12

MINERAL NAME
Magnesium ammonium phosphate

Struvite

13

MINERAL NAME
Magnesium acid phosphate trihydrate

Newberyite

14

MINERAL NAME
Magnesium ammonium phosphate monohydrate

Dittmarite

15

Radiopaque stones

Calcium oxalate dihydrate
Calcium oxalate monohydrate
Calcium phosphates

16

Poor radiopacity

Magnesium ammonium phosphate
Apatite
Cystine

17

Radiolucent stones

Uric acid
Ammonium urate
Xanthine
2,8-Dihydroxyadenine
Drug-stones

18

Repeat stone analysis in patients presenting with:

Recurrent stones despite drug therapy
Early recurrence after complete stone clearance
Late recurrence after a long stone-free period because stone composition may change

19

Pregnant women: first and second line imaging

1st: Ultrasound
2nd: MRI
Last option: low-dose CT

20

Children: diagnosis recommendations in children

Complete metabolic evaluation based on stone alaysis
Collect stone material to classify stone type
First-line imaging: ultrasound (kidney, fluid-filled bladder, ureter)
KUB x-ray or low dose non-contrast CT if ultrasound will not provide information

21

Pain relief: first drug of choice

NSAIDs and paracetamol: ex. metamizoledipyrone.

22

Pain relief: second drug of choice

Opiates: hydromorphine, pentazocine, or tramadol (NOT pethidine)

23

Pain relief: when to offer renal decompression or URS stone removal

In case of analgesic refractory colic pain

24

Two options for urgent decompression of obstructed collecting systems:

Indwelling ureteral stent placement
Percutaneous nephrostomy tube placement

25

Obstructed collecting systems: definitive treatment of stones should be delayed until ______.

Sepsis resolves

26

After decompression of obstructed collecting system, collect _______ and start ________.

Urine for antibiogram
Antibiotics immediately + intensive care, if necessary.

Re-evaluate antibiotic regimen after antibiogram findings.

27

Medical expulsive therapy should only be used in _____________.

Informed patients if active stone removal is not indicated.

28

Patients treated with _____, ______, and ______ are more likely to pass stones with fewer colic episodes than those not receiving such therapy.

MET:

alpha-blockers (tamsulosin)
calcium-channel inhibitors (nifedipine)
PDE-5 inhibitors (tadalafil)

29

Offer alpha-blockers as MET for _________ stones.

Ureteral (distal) , > 5 mm

30

Irrigation chemolysis has been in limited clinical use to dissolve _____.

Struvite stones